gagone ɣaɣɔnə
gal ɣal verb, transitive
Motaɣaloroll fibre on the thigh into twineSee*kaloroll or twist fiber into rope
make ‹rope or twine, gaw› by rolling or twisting a vegetal fibre (typic. on o.'s thigh)
Nie mat gal pah ne gaw livise.She had already made six ropes.
gare ɣarə verb, transitive
bite ‹, s.o.›
Nie mit garesike!It might bite you!
ne puh geregarecrabspincers [lit. biting fingers]
gare gōr ɣarəɣor verb, transitive
bite overeat over ‹, esp. kava gi› so as to remove the sensation of bad taste; rinse o.'s mouth out (with, ē)
Tewë të ne gi na gōone, nike si gare gōr ē ne metu, hi të ne gire.If you find the kava too bitter, you may ‘rinse your mouth out’ with some coconut or some pineapple.
garemi ɣarəmi noun
1man, animaltongue
N' ëv ni gow, ne garemi ëv ni iw…The fire burns on, and finally the flames subside…
gat ɣat noun
1a common basket, woven out of coconut leaves, and used to carry food
ēwe ne gat i gengëncarry (on o.'s back) a basket of food
Nie ni ole ne gengën, ni gōen li gat mē.He took the food and stowed it in his basket.
2genany kind of basket, bag, or similarly woven structure
ne gat (i) n̄ëra bag of Canarium almonds
ne gat i gengën ri ëvthe (woven) cupboard above the fire
seetēn̄ebag, container
gave ɣaβə verb, intransitive
n' ēke gevegave[flying ship] airplane
gaw ɣaw noun
1naturalvine, creeper, liana
Të w' itë ne gaw të we vil ne kēnu nome vë mermēr.You need to find a liana, so as to fasten tightly your canoe.
2manmaderope, string, twine; (mod) electric wire+
Noke të ke gal ne gaw sise.I'm going to make a twine (by rolling fibres, gal).
ligetë ne gawfasten a rope
Gawe ɣawə locative
Gaua: the biggest island of the Banks group, south-east of the Torres
Nihe ge vēn dën ne Gawe vēn Venielave.They were going from Gaua to Vanua Lava.
1 ɣɛ
1thing, concrete or abstract
ne pere gë reria tiny little thing
ne gë hasomething else
📘 A more frequent word for ‘thing’ is volgë, etym. vol-gë ‘every-thing’.
vën gë vë gë interrogative
usually with articlewhat thingwhat
Pa kemi na hal ne vë gë si?What are you carrying?
Ne vën gë ve toge lione?[lit. what thing is inside] What's inside?
Vën gë ve daie nike?[lit. what thing ‘made’ you?] What happened to you?
si gë noun
non-referential indefinitesomething, anything
Kemor tat' itë si gë ve toge vete k'.We haven't seen anything around here.
synonymsi ave
2after negation(not…) anything; nothing
Noke tat mene gë.I have nothing.
NoteThe two phrases Tate gë ~ Tat mene gë, originally meaning ‘There isn't anything’, have grammaticalised as a single unit, with various meanings: ‘not be there, lack, be absent; no; don't worry; to no avail…’: Hen̄were te Lō tat-mene-gë. The people from Lo were not there.
3after possessive classifiersomething (to eat/drink…): default noun forming the head of possessive noun phrases, in the absence of a more specific noun head. Equiv. to Eng. possessive pronouns ‘mine, yours…’
Nik' ole gēne gë ni gën.Give him something to eat.
Un gom' gë qet!Drink yours [lit. your thing] first!
Nek 'ë nōk!humShe's mine!
Morphology elides its first consonant when preceded by a 1sg classifier: go-k 'ë [ɣɔˈkɛ], mo-k 'ë [mɔˈkɛ], ne-k 'ë [nəˈkɛ].
a dummy suffix that combines with certain suffixable (inalienable) nouns or prepositions
SyntaxThe function of this dummy suffix is mainly, for those bound forms that require the presence of a possessor, to fill this morphological slot. Compare kilë-k ‘my back’, kilë megage verue ‘after two months’, kilë-gë ‘afterwards’.
1a non-productive suffix with a generic or non-specific meaning (opp. in or -ne, specific anaphoric suffixes)
ne dedavē-gëbehaviour, custom
ne melpē-gëfootprints
taveli-gëon the other side
2espa suffix that combines with kinterms when the possessor is irrelevant, e.g. when reference is made to the kin relationship itself
net-gëa child
Kemor na tegi-gë.We are brothers.
-gë2 ɣɛ suffix
transitivising suffix added to certain motion verbs (vēn ‘go’, vin ‘go up’), with a comitative or instrumental meaning
vēn-gëgo with (s.o.), lead, accompany; go with (, bring
vin-gëgo up with (s.o.), take (s.o.) up; go up with (, bring up
📘 Corresponds to the suffix -vë used with most verbs.
gën ɣɛn verb, transitive
1eat ‹›
Gën!Eat it!
seegengëneat; food
seego~Food possessive classifer
2monster+eat, devour ‹s.o.›
Nie mat gën ne megole mē.He had already eaten her child.
3figeat ‹s.o.'s days, qen̄hold a mourning meal: have a collective meal in order to celebrate a certain number of days (5, 10, 15 or 100) after the death of s.o., as a sign of bereavement
Heqere tutun̄we mē ge gën ne qen̄ mē.His family will hold a mourning meal in his memory [lit. they will ‘eat his days’].
gët1 ɣɛt noun
fire ant, black biting antSolenopsis geminata.
gët2 ɣɛt verb, transitive
<°ɣ(a)ˈat-iPOc*kaRatbite gare
chew ‹kava, gi›: prepare ‹kava› by masticating it in the mouth (opp. qehih grinding it manually)
Dōr të g' ake gët vë medediët?Are we going to soften [the kava] by chewing it?
gëtuwē ɣɛtʉwe postverb
(be or act) together
Ge gengën gëtuwē.Let's eat together.
Heqergë vetel ve tog' gëtuwē l' ēn̄we revriëv.There are three women sitting together in the kitchen.
derivativeiu-gëtuwēhave a meeting
derivativeda-gëtuwēbe identical
gëwie ɣɛwiə adjective
+ wie
intensifierrēt, fine; right, alright
Na gëwie (weren̄o).That's (just) fine.
Ni itë ne rega wë na gëwie.He found a tree that was suitable (for his purpose).
na gëwie phrase
it's finediscourse particle indicating the shift to another topic: well, fine, okay, alright
Na gëwie, kemi gengën!Okay, now you guys have your dinner!
2after a time wordforms expressions of greeting
Metave gëwie!Good morning!
Lewate revrëv gëwie!Good afternoon!
qen̄ gëwie!Goodnight! ~ Goodbye! good state, working properly
Nihe mat da taterihe wulë, none kike mat gëwie.They have already fixed (the phone), now it's working [lit. it's good] again.
4s.o.fine, in good health; recover (from disease)
Nike na gëwie? – Noke na gëwie weren̄o.Are you okay? – I'm just fine.
Nie ni un ne wuhe, tate pero nie ni gëwie.He drank some medicine, and recovered [lit. ‘he got well’] quite quickly.
Ne ren̄ōk, sa tēmetō na vahgēt si, pa ve gëwie melun̄lun̄.My (injured) leg was massaged by an elder man, so it's slowly improving.
5s.o.morally good, fair, honest
Dedavēne na gëwie që.She still has a good character.
Kemëm tate metegtog nihe, nawë nihe hen̄were gëwie; nihe tate hia.healersWe don't fear them, because they are good people; they're not evil.
gëwōn ɣɛwon wëwōn noun
wōndense, closed
bush, forest
tare ne lite li wëwōncut firewood in the forest
Noke na hikerë lilëre si li gëwōn.I've dumped it in the bush.
N' ëv ve gow ne gëwōn ri tegetage.The forest was destroyed by a fire on the hill.
gēde ɣeʈᶳə possessive classifier
1 incl. plural form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gēdōr ɣeʈᶳor possessive classifier
1 incl. dual form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gēhe ɣehə possessive classifier
3 plural form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gēhōr ɣehor possessive classifier
3 dual form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gēne ɣenə possessive classifier
3sg form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
ge ɣə
gega1 ɣəɣa noun
ne gega mi ne hegëa pig's rib
gega2 ɣəɣa adverb
Seevaɣaealways, often
often, steadily, regularly; repeatedly
Nike vën ton pah, nike wuw gega.Once you have planted (the taro), you water it regularly.
Ne tō vë ele gega wë nōk, tate pero të ne metave ni tōt.When the cock crows repeatedly like this, it means day is about to break.
gego ɣəɣɔ verb, intransitive
angle, fish with a fishing-line and a hook
Noke vēn ke gego li lēme.I'm going angling in the sea.
synonymtul ne go
gehgih ɣəhɣih verb, intransitive
reduplicated form of gih*
gehuh ɣəhʉh noun
coconut crabBirgus latro.
ne pehu gehuhcoconut crab's claw
ne vegevage së i gehuhthe story of the coconut crab
Ni hër mēse pah ne gehuh, ni rak n' ëv.As soon as he had killed the (coconut) crab, he made a fire.
gehuwe ɣəhʉwə noun
📘 Two subspecies of rats are n' oleqō and ne viden̄ër.
gehuwe men̄emën̄e ɣəhʉwə məŋəmeŋə proper noun
the Whispering Ratsname of a constellation: the Pleiades
📘 Its name is said to refer to the scintillations of the stars.
gel ɣəl
Averb, intransitive
1genericstay, dwell
Pene, vete pe hen̄were n̄wië ve gelgel ē.Hell is the place where Spirits dwell.
2specificfind oneself somewhere, esp. for some time
Kemëm na gel si lete mi kemëm.We've been (staying) in our garden.
Ne n̄wië ve kur ne tēle, nie ve gel kō lete.The man-eating Ogre is here, in this house.
Të we revraviëv, we gel pe wë ne, we gel gel gel gel…initiation ritualsDuring your period of fasting, you'll just stay like this (i.e. with no activity), you'll stay on and on…
subject normally singularauxiliary carrying aspectual meaning of Imperfective, i.e. Habitual and Progressive
📘 Like any serial verbs, gel and the following verb must agree in aspect marking. They both take either the Background aspect ve [(S) ve gel ve (V)] or Aorist aspect [e.g. for 3sg: (S) ni gel ni (V)], with no difference in meaning. With a plural subject, gel tends to be replaced by toge*
1marker for Habitual aspect: do habitually, keep doing
sa pe ve gel ve salëm n' igethe guy who sells fish
Mowe ne, nie ve gel ve vir ne lune.At that time, she used to plait her hair.
Ne tēne ni gel ni si teltël weren̄o li merēme mēde kike.His soul will keep wandering in this world of ours.
2marker for Progressive aspect: be doing (in a particular situation)
Noke gel ke hiar ne hen̄wëvot mino vete k'.I am looking for my knife here.
Ike rōn̄? Sa vervërvehë ve gel ve vese ne vërgage.Listen! The teacher's swearing!
Pa ne n̄wië ne ve gel ve deda-gerë të ni rohe nihe.In fact the Ogre was trying to kill them.
gelgil ɣəlɣil verb, intransitive
reduplicated form of gil*
gelih ɣəlih noun
small lizard sp.
gelit ɣəlit noun
<°ɣuˈlitiPOc*kulitskin; peel
Deda ne keka ne, ne gelisin weren̄o.That's not a yam, it's only its skin.
gelit pie~ noun, relational
1sg— piek2sg— pi(e)3sg— piëne
personskin of bodyskin
ne gelit pie-k[the skin of my body] my skin
Tate kerekore ne gelit pie wë ne!Don't scratch your skin like that!
gelowe ɣəlɔwə noun
left hand
taveli gelowethe left side
gemël ɣəmɛl noun
men's clubhouse: a collective house where men meet
Ne gi ne, na mi heqere lilave të ge un li gemël.This kava is for the dignitaries to drink in the clubhouse.
Ne pu heha na vehē li gemël.Several ranks are represented in a men's house.
Ne huqe, nie ne sega toq, nie ne sega te li gemël.The system of grade hierarchy is something sacred, something that belongs to the men's clubhouse.
gemëm ɣəmɛm possessive classifier
1 excl. plural form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gemi ɣəmi possessive classifier
2 plural form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gemor ɣəmɔr possessive classifier
1 excl. dual form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gemōr ɣəmor possessive classifier
2 dual form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gengën ɣənɣɛn
Averb, transitive
Ne gerite të ni gengën ne megole mē.The octopus wanted to eat her child.
📘 Reduplicated form of gën*.
Bverb, intransitive
eat, have o.'s dinner
Na gëwie, gide gengën!Fine, let's eat now!
Nike wiēne pah qet, si w' ake gengën.One must drink kava first, and only then have their dinner.
1root crops, starch, esp. yams, whether in raw or cooked form
ne gengën te letefood from the garden (crops)
Kemëm na ton ne gengën si.We've been planting food (i.e. yams+).
Dege toge sëh të ne gengën vë howse pah.Let's wait for the food (esp. vegetables) to get cooked.
Tat mene gengën l' ēn̄we.There's no food at home.
seego~Food possessive classifier
3dinner, meal, esp. collective meal
rak ne gengënmake the dinner
gengën lewō noun
big mealcollective meal, feast
gepën ɣəpɛn
<°ɣabaniPNCV*kabanisail (n)
n' ēke (i) gepën[lit. canoe of sail] sailing boat
velvelag ē ne gepën[lit. navigate with sail] to sail
Heqere te li venone së, nihe ge ole ne hovog ge vo ne gepën ē.Our ancestors used to weave pandanus leaves into sails.
Bverb, intransitive
raresail, navigate on a sailing boat
Ge rav rake ne gepën vin ri turgë, pah vēn ge gepën ē.They hoisted the sail on the mast, and began to sail.
gerage ɣəraɣə verb, intransitive
1climb up
gerage vin ē ne gawclimb up on a rope
Nihe ge gerage vin ri vot.They climbed up the rock.
📘 Usually takes directional vin ‘up’.
2go uphill, esp. to the garden; go inland (from sea)
Kemor gerage vin lete.We're going up to our garden.
Nonegë nihe ve lelōl vēn vēn vēn, sise ni gerage.As they were surfing on the waves, one of them went back inland [lit. ‘climbed’].
📘 Used as a directional verb, even when the slope is gentle and the movement actually takes place on the horizontal plane. In this case, the corresponding directional is il.
3gengo up
4figgo up, increase
n' iē pu pah, darak' ē ne pu rav tuwtōw, ni gerage vinthe names of all ranks, starting with the first rank (the lowest), and ‘going up’
gerake ɣərakə noun
body fat, esp. of meat
seesēpturtle's fat
seeditwëhfatty, tasty, sweet
gerë ɣərɛ postverb
1after a verb(do tentatively; try to
da gerë[do tentatively] try, attempt
📘 The meaning ‘try’ generally involves the verb dagerë*, itself from da + gerë [lit. ‘do tentatively’]
2after imperativemarks a polite order: please (do
Levlōv gerë nie te me!Try and call him/Why don't you call him?
Vese gerë te, telefon na hia që?Please tell me, is the phone still out of order?
Ole gerë si wingo, mi n' ëh revrav ē.Please bring me a hook and a fishing-line.
📘 Sometimes combined with te2.
gerē~ ɣəre noun
neck; throat
Ne gerēk na memerie lione.My throat hurts inside.
geregare ɣərəɣarə verb, intransitive
reduplicated form of gare ‘bite’
ne puh geregarecrabspincers [lit. biting fingers]
geregore ɣərəɣɔrə adjective
None kike nie tate gōp pe; nie mat geregore urvë.Today she's not so skinny any more, she's got nicely fat.
2animal, thingvery big, huge
ne gehuh geregorestorya giant coconut-crab
ne hen̄wë vot geregorea huge piece of rock
gereh ɣərəh gureh noun, relational
ne gereh gia root/head of kava
ne gureh pakebanian roots
ne gurgureh regareduplicationroots [lit. plant roots]
📘 The roots of banyan trees are rather called its ‘vines’ (tel).
gergarōn̄ ɣərɣaroŋ verb, indirect transitive
mourn (for s.o., hi), lament the death of s.o.
Nie ni gergarōn̄ hi ne megole mē, të mat mēt.She was mourning [for] her child, who had just passed away.
gerite ɣəritə noun
1octopusOctopus spp.
ne vegevage pi geritethe story of the octopus
ne vere geritea small octopus
Ne gerite ni gih tegerë ne ren̄ōn sa sise.Suddenly an octopus gripped tightly one of these men's legs.
2squidTeuthoidea spp.
not ne geritefood preparationhit a squid (to soften it)
gesir ɣəsir verb, transitive
<°tuɣuruCf. MwotlaptigiyCf. Motatuwur
thatch a roof: cover ‹a house, ēn̄we› with a thatch roof made of sago leaves (ēt)
see lexical list atēn̄we ①
gesir parehë ɣəsir parəhɛ noun
Cf. gesir ‘to thatch’
thatch pole: horizontal light beam laid across the rafters ‹qone ②›, as support for the sago-leaves tiles of the thatch roof (ēt)
see lexical list atēn̄we ①
gi ɣi noun
<°ɣeaMotaɣeaPr-North°ɣayaPNCV*kawaRroot, kavaPOc*wakaR
1kava plantPiper methysticum.
ne tet gia head of kava
o ne gidig up kava
2kava: a mildly narcotic drink made out of this plant, traditionally drunk by male adults, esp. inside their clubhouse (gemël*)
Dō vēn ōr un ne gi?Shall we go drink kava?
Tewë të nike gengën tuwtōw, ne gi tat ho daike luwō.If you eat first, you won't get the strong effects of kava.
gide ɣiʈᶳə personal pronoun
First inclusive plural pronoun: we, us
Gide ge n̄wule ge rak tegōv.Let's go back and make some pudding.
📘 Toga form, historically more conservative, for dege.
main entrydege
gih ɣih verb, indirect transitive
1dynamicseize, grab, take hold (of, ē)
Gih ē mi ne limē!Grab it with your hand!
Ge gil o ne keka, ge gih ē ne tel in ge rav.Once they had dug out the yam, they grabbed its vine and pulled it.
2stativehave in o.'s hands, hold (, ē)
Nike të w' ake tul ne qian̄e nike ve gih ē?Will you cast that net you're holding?
gih roqrë ɣih rɔkʷrɛ verb, transitive
1let go of ‹› out of o.'s hands
Merawehih ni gih roqrë ne wuh or, ne wuh or ni laqe rake!M. let go of the oaktree's end (which he was bending down), and suddenly the tree soared up in the air.
2figrelease, give away ‹secret+›
Nihe të ge gih roqrë ne temēt mēke.initiation ritualsThey will release to you the secrets of your rank. [lit. they will let go of your Spirits]
gih tegerë ɣih təɣərɛ verb, transitive
Redupgih tegtegerë
hold tightly ‹, s.o.› in o.'s hands or arms: grip, hug
Ne gerite ni gih tegerë ne ren̄ōn sa sise.Suddenly an octopus gripped tightly one of these men's legs.
gil ɣil
Averb, transitive
1dig a hole in, hollow out ‹›
gil ne tēnmake a hole in the ground
Ni tëh pah, pah wë ne ni gil ne lione.canoeAfter cutting out (its shape), he began to hollow out its inner part.
2dig ‹root crops+› out of earth; hence harvest
Nihe ge gil: gil gil gil gil gil gil gil gil gil gil gil ne keka ne, ge gil o.They began to dig the yam: they dug on and on and on… until they dug it out completely.
gil o verb, transitive
dig removedig out ‹root crops›
Li gat mino kike, ne keka tekële kemëm ve gil o si.In my basket here, there are a few yams we've just dug out.
Bverb, intransitivegelgil
do the harvesting of root crops, esp. yams (keka). Designates the last stage of yam cultivation
Nonegë ne hinēge ve rēn̄, nie ni vese të “Pa gide vē ge gelgil.”As the crops were getting ready, he said “Okay, let's go digging up!”
gire ɣirə noun
a variety of Pandanus tree, whose leaves are improper for weaving (opp. ve2)Pandanus tectorius.
Ne gire, dege na hen̄wehēn̄we ne tun̄ in.The gire pandanus has a juice that we like to suck.
📘 Its sweet fruits are appreciated by children and flying-foxes.
go ɣɔ noun
fish hook
n' ëh go[hook string] fishing-line
📘 The preferred term is wingo.
tultul go tul ne go phrasal verb
sink the hookangle, fish with a fishing-line and a hook
Noke vēn ke tul ne go li lēme.I'm going to “sink the hook” in the sea (i.e. I'm going angling).
go~ ɣɔ possessive classifier
possessive classifier for food possession
SyntaxSuffixed with the possessor, and immediately followed by the possessed noun (with no article): gome vetëlyour banana (to eat)’. When used as a partitive object, the partitive si inserts between the classifier and the noun: (Ole) gome |fv{si vetël} ‘(Have) some banana(s)! [|ax{lit. Take yours some banana]}’. As a default, the dummy noun ‘thing’ is used: gome gëyour thing to eat (|ax{i.e. your food)}’. Note: the combination of 1sg go-k + is gok' ë [ɣɔkɛ].
1both dialectsclassifier for food possession: associates some edible item (possessum) with the individual who eats it (possessor)
Ole gome si ige mino!Have some of my fish [for you to eat]!
K' ake vē ke hiar gemi gengën.I'll go find some food for you (pl).
2Lo dialectclassifier for drink possession: associates some drinkable item (possessum) with the individual who drinks it (possessor)
Gēdōr gë magēdōr!kavaThis is ours (to drink), for just the two of us.
Un gom' gë qet!coconutDrink yours first!
📘 The Toga dialect has a specific classifier for drinks: mo~.
gok ɣɔk possessive classifier
1 sg form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gome ɣɔmə possessive classifier
2 sg form of Food possessive classifier go~*.
gone ɣɔnə noun
a conical basket trap used to catch small fish or crustaceans in fresh water
Kemor t' ake wutë ne gone, t' ōr vilse ne rog te li pē qet.First of all we'll set a trap, so as to catch some freshwater prawns.
gor ɣɔr verb, intransitive
fish; person+move in water, swim
Sise ni gor v-ag-il me helil.One of them swam back up towards the coast.
Pa n' ige ni ven̄kë ne wingo, pah vēn ni gor lëre.Then the fish let go of the hook, and swam astray.
gove ɣɔβə noun
Eastern Reef Heron, 50 cmArdea sacra.
gow ɣɔw
Averb, intransitive
fire n' ëvburn; esp. burn normally, with neither big flames nor smoke (vs. lewelawe ‘burn brightly’)
Pah wë ne, n' ëv ni gow, ne garmi ëv ni iw.At this point the fire starts to ‘burn’ (i.e. burn normally), that is, the big flames subside.
Bverb, transitive
fire n' ëvconsume, burn ‹, s.o.›
N' ëv na gow si ne gëwōn ri tegetage.The forest on the hill got caught in a fire. [lit. A fire burnt the forest]
N' iëv ni gow gow gow, ni gow lilëre n' en̄we, ni gow pelage rue hōr.The fire kept on burning, eventually destroying [lit. burn disappear] all the houses and killing [burning] the two friends.
gōen ɣoən verb, transitive
<°ɣon-iMotasoɣonpack, stow+
1put away, stow ‹› into a container (basket+)
Nie ni hō rake ne wehale, ni gōen li gat.He seized a tuber and put it into his basket.
2fill ‹a container› with one or several objects
Nihe ge gōen ne kēnu sise, gōen gōen gōen gōen gōen vēn vēn, ne tēle ni wure.They began to fill the canoe (with objects and men) so much that there soon was no room for anyone else.
gōet ɣoət noun
long traditional knife carved out of wood and designed to cut the nalōt cake
ne gōet, të ge siv nalōt ēa wooden knife (gōet) for slicing nalot
gōone ɣoɔnə adjective
food, drink+salty, bitter, tasting bad
Tewë të ne gi na gōone, nike si gare gōr.If you find kava tastes bad, you can eat something.
ne pē-gōone noun
salty watersea water, sea
main entrypēgōone
gōp ɣop adjective
s.o.thin, skinny
Nie na gōp hia.She's too skinny.
gōp lëre adjective
skinny disappearextremely skinny (so skinny that one almost disappears)
Mowe tuwtōw, mowe nike vë revraviëv wë ne, nike të w' ake gōp lëre.initiation ritualsIn olden days, every time you would fast like that, you would end up being extremely skinny.
gōr ɣor postverb, transitive
Pr-North°ɣoroPNCV*korosurround, cover, obstruct ; shelter, enclosure
a transitivising postverb, whose function is to present a verb (whether stative or active) as a way to cover or surround or hide or block or protect or forbid or oppose ‹, s.o.›
📘 Follows immediately a verb. It is normally written as a separate clitic (e.g. da gōr); but when the combination [V+gōr] is clearly lexicalised, the postverb is sometimes treated typographically as a suffix (da-gōr) or even as part of the same word (dagōr). Possible glosses of gōr in English, syntactically similar though semantically too restrictive, may be ‘over’ or ‘across’
1(be or act) so as to cover or wrap or surround ‹›; hence over or round
Ge mok gōr ne lugu ē ne horega.We'll cover [lit. lay over] the oven with leaves.
Ge wo gōr (ne hinēge) ē ne hova, pah wë ne, ge ret gōr ē ne hogrie.They wrap up [lit. wrap round] (the food) with banana-leaves; and then, they fasten it [lit. tie round] with leaves of cordyline.
Ne liove ni lōl lōl lōl vēn vēn, vēn gōr ne qetune, ni mēt.a man trapped in rocksThe tide rose, rose, rose, so much that it eventually went over his head, and he died.
2(be or act) so as to physically impede access to ‹›, whether intentionally or not: block, obstruct, be in the way, hide
ne tutu-gōran obstacle
Resiga ni mok gōr ne metë-qerēn̄e.She blocked [lit. laid across] the entrance (with a stone).
Ne rega luwō v' in gōr ne mesale.There's a big tree blocking [lit. lying across] the road.
Noke ve heghag gōr (ne hen̄wëvot mino) të si tēle mit venēg.I sit on [lit. sit across] (my knife) so that nobody steals it.
3(be or act) so as to intentionally keep ‹, s.o.› away from outsiders: protect, defend ‹s.o.›; keep ‹› private or secret or taboo; put a ban on ‹›
da-gōr ne gehuhput a ban on coconut crabs
da-gurō ne n̄welen̄wēlemake downpayment on a woman (so as to reserve her as o.'s wife-to-be)
Hen̄were temtēmetō na mesiw gōr ne volgë i huqe.The elders keep initiation rituals secret.
seedōt-vërgōrbe jealous
seeholegōrsecret society
4(be or act) so as to stop ‹s.o.› from acting: prevent, forbid, prohibit
Marenage mat tu-gerō hōr.The chief has already stopped [lit. stood-across] them (from arguing).
Ne tën petpit ve pit gurō the clubhouse gemël*The barrier log is stopping me (from going any further).
5(be or act) as a reaction to ‹›, so as to stop or counter its effects
gare gōr (ne gi)[lit. eat over kava] rinse o.'s mouth after drinking kava
gōr n̄wet ɣorŋʷət verb, transitive
Motaɣorocut, cut round
cut ‹› with a sharp implement
Nie ni gōr n̄wet ne tukone.Then she cut off his umbilical cord.
gugor ɣʉɣɔr verb, intransitive
reduplicated form of gor ‘swim’
gureh ɣʉrəh noun
main entrygereh