~a1 (i·)a verb, intransitive
bodytremble with fear; feel very uncomfortable
Ebel' en' i-a.I'm terrified!
see~ekilitremble
a-2 a(i)· ai- subject prefix
Lvnnu-
Tnmgo-, gi-
you: second singular realis prefix
A-tomoli!You're lying!
K' a-tab' a-mui?Have you forgotten again?
Ai-ovei?Do you know?
MorphologyBecomes ai- before a vowel, or some monosyllabic roots.
contrasts withu- ①2sg Irrealis
aba1 aᵐba possessive classifier
Lvnamere
Tnmabe
(food+) for me and him/her: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 1 exclusive dual possessor (see keba)
Bai-ali buioe aba awoiu.We've picked our areca nuts (for us to chew).
see lexical list atenaka
aba2 aᵐba possessive classifier
our (relative), of me and him/her: form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 1 exclusive dual possessor (see keba)
et' abaour mother (the mother of my sibling and myself)
see lexical list atone
abia aᵐbia adjective
Lvnmaranga
Tnmabia, opokei
1many, a lot of; numerous
Ne ngogoro uña menuko abia, ka pe-romo p-ajau!There are many animals in the woods, be careful!
Abia tamwase!There are too many!
Ni-bo abia.head of NPI've cut many of them.
seeengaengavarious
antonymamjakafew
2all, every
kiapa abia naall of us here
A-romo abia ponu awoiu?Have you seen them all?
synonymawoiu ⓓall
derivativeidi abiamany people; everybody
ngatene abia noun
thing alleverything
moro abia adverb
day allevery day, always
Moro abia pon, nga pon.The same would happen every day.
abiaini aᵐbiaini adjective
Lvnabiaole
Tnmabenini
thick
Uie vilo pon abiaini.This leaf is thick.
Abiaini tamwase.It's too thick.
antonymmeñevirothin
abigo aᵐbiᵑgo noun
Flora
k.o. plantAcalypha hispida.
abilo aᵐbilo noun
Lvnnene
snake
Abilo pon i-ovei pe i-somoli mwaliko.This kind of snake can be harmful.
Abilo i-tataele ne tanoe.There’s a snake crawling on the ground.
derivativelava abilo[sides of a snake] k.o. large liana
abilo peini revo noun
Sea
snake of the seaseasnakeLaticauda semifasciata.
abo1 aᵐbo noun
Tnmabome
grass
kiñe aboblades of grass
abo2 aᵐbo noun
Lvnamwale
Tnmaba
1sabo ne ene2sabo ne eo3sabo ne ini
Anatomy
1blood
Men' one i-tabau i-woi visibaele ini ne touro, abo i-ke.My son fell down and hurt his knee on the reef; he was bleeding.
Abo peini ma i-udu.His blood was dripping from his hand.
Abo na, (abo) ne ngele?Whose blood is this?
I-ko i-la abo ne kaipa i-ko i-romo abo i-ko pi-tavie we tae.He wants to draw your blood and examine it to see if you are sick.
poss. classifierne ① ⓑ▻①
2figrareintimate feelings. Used in some expressions
Buro pon i-katau abo ne ene!humThis song suits my blood! (=I love it!)
abu1 aᵐbu Tense Aspect Mood marker
Lvnabu
Tnmabu
1before hortative‘all right’, ‘let's’
Abu ne-kila Puma!teleradioLet me try and ring the guys in Puma.
Abu le-romo kape i-ka we tae?Let's see if she'll come or not.
2before imperative verbmarks polite order: ‘please’
Abu bai-aiu ba-vio me ne-rom!Could you please stand up and let me have a look there?
Ab' u-leng' i-ka.Listen to me for a second.
📘 Cognate with the conative prefix bu- ③.
3used aloneencouragement towards action: ‘come on’, ‘please’
O, abu, kaipa! Pe-ka p-atui botu 'none!Come on, you all! Come and check out my boat!
~abu2 (i·)aᵐbu
Lvn~pwo
Tnm~kabu
Averb, intransitive
go down
1physical motiongo down
Kape idi abia ponu na Aneve na, li-abu li-le li-vio n’ ole.Let everyone in the village go down and stand on the beach.
see~kego out, go seawards
derivative~abu ~tesit down
antonym~venego up
2figsubside, slow down
Pana iawo i-abu mijaka.The flames (of the fire) have died down a little.
O, tae, la-wañaka iada ka i-abu i-wene.That's all right, their dispute has gone down now.
3geocentric meaninggo downwindtravel north or west
Kape n-ab' ne-le Honiara.I'll travel west [lit. down] to Honiara.
antonym~vene ⓐ▻④go south/east
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after intransitive verb(move+) down
I-sabu i-abu ne ero.He fell down in the river.
Kuo pine ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.The huge canoe was sliding down (on the rollers).
Ero i-pu i-abu i-vagasi revo.The river flows down to the sea.
2after transitive verb(take, move s.th.) down
Li-toe dero i-abu.They cut down the cauri tree.
Ni-tabulu voko i-abu i-le ne gilita.I rolled a rock down into the valley.
Ka mobo kata kape la-ka ponu: li-elele kuo iada i-abu.The next day, as they were getting ready, they dragged their canoe down (on the sand).
3geocentric meaningdownwind, towards north or west
Ngiro Tangake i-aka i-abu i-kamai tev' iu ne.The Tangake wind blows down from the east.
~abu3 (i·)aᵐbu verb, transitive
Tnm~rara
Words for hitting and strikingli-abu
~abu hit w. hands; kill
~ago spear; shoot w. arrow
~apini kill, destroy
~arevo shatter, destroy
~bei squash, crush
~la ~mini strike hard
~makoe ; ~mamakoe broken, shattered
~panade split
~pidi strike w. supple object; lash, whip
~tobo poke; pierce
~viane hit w. foot, trample, stomp
~vo ① beat, pound w. long stick; crush
~vokoiu break; crush, destroy
~wate bang on ‹s.th.›
~wete spear; shoot; pound; grind
~woi stab; plant; erect, thrust; bang
1hit, strike ‹s.th., s.o.›, typic. with o.'s hands
Ka vitoko kape i-abu tanoma ini, ia i-abu i-kovi.He nearly hit her face; but he missed.
Dapa kula li-abu revo, me le-labu namuko.The others slap the water, in order to (scare and) catch the fish.
Vilisao i-abu toñaki pon.The ships were struck by a tornado.
see~wete
2play ‹musical instrument› using hands
Li-abu ukalele ka gita.They play the ukulele and the guitar.
Ngele i-abu?musicWho's playing?
see~vi ①blow
3kill, slay, murder ‹s.o.›
Pon tadoe? Pon tepakola? Kape i-abu idi?Is that a god? Is that a giant? Does he kill people?
Nga po idi le-sune ngele kape i-te, pon kape l-abu.If they found somebody around, they would kill him.
Tadoe tae: i-abu idi tae.He's not a monster, he doesn't kill people.
synonym~apini
4kill ‹animal›, hence hunt, fish+
Mobo kape le-lui nuduro me l-abu namuko.Tomorrow we'll carry the scareline to get some fish.
~abu4 (i·)aᵐbu verb, transitive
Tnm~wo
wash ‹clothes+› with water, esp. vigorously
Kape n-abu lusa ene ne iaero.I'm gonna wash my shirt in the river.
see~aka ②wash gently
~abui (i·)aᵐbui verb, transitive
Caus. of ~abu ② ‘go down’
take ‹s.th.› down
Pi-ka pi-abui ngatene upa pi-ko me p-ajau toñaki iote.We took our tools down (from the ship) so as to build another boat.
see lexical list at~lui
~abu ~te (i·)aᵐbu (i·)te
descend sitsit down
U-ka u-abu u-te ene!Come sit down here!
abwa aᵐbʷa noun
Collecting tree gum (li-loko abwa).
Cf. (?) abo ② ‘blood’
1sap ‹of tree›: natural liquid coming out of a plant's trunk or stem
Li-toe bale, abwa i-pu i-ke.When you cut at a breadfruit, sap will come out.
Abwa dero i-ke mina oie basavono po li-toe, i-ka i-beiu ka li-kila li-ko “tepulu peini dero”.The sap of the kauri tree runs out of the trunk when you cut it; then it solidifies, and we call it tepulu, “kauri gum”.
contrasts withela ② ⓐjuice
contrasts withtepulugum
2liquid characterized by its specific colour; hence colour
abwa nabene noun
tobacco colourred-brown colour
Li-kanu ra ra li-ra abwa nabene.As they chew betelnut, what they spit out is red.
seemoloered
abwa motono abwa nga motono adjective
Lvnabokoleva
colour (like) the deep seadeep blue
abwa nga toloto nga toloto adjective
colour like the lagoonturquoise blue, blue-green
Dapa ka li-romo i-katau kiñe tamate, lusa ini, temaka ene pe moloe, ene po koro, ene po nga toloto, ene ka ene nga toloto –They would observe the grass skirts, the dancing gear; which part was red, which part was white, which part was green, here and here…
abwa bale aᵐbʷa ᵐbale noun
abwa▻① ‘gum’ + bale ‘breadfruit’
breadfruit gumresin of the breadfruit tree (bale), used as glue; hence glue
Dapa Niteni li-loko viavia mamdeuko pe moloe, li-la abwa bale li-lateli ne mengela vilo, li-ejau viko iadapa ñei.The people of Santa Cruz collect the red feathers of the Cardinal honeyeater, then use breadfruit sap to glue them to a piece of wood: that's how they make their traditional money.
abwaro aᵐbʷaro noun
Food
coconutcoconut ‘milk’, obtained by squeezing coconut flesh
abwaro peini lurococonut milk
see lexical list atluro
ada1 aⁿda possessive classifier
Lvnadere
Tnmadea
Grammar
their (food+), of them two: form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da)
mama adatheir taro pudding
buioe adatheir areca nut (for them to chew)
ngaten' adatheir food or their belongings
see lexical list atenaka
ada2 aⁿda possessive classifier
Grammar
their (relative): form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da)
et' adatheir mother (of them two)
tili' adatheir brother (of them two)
gi' adatheir uncle (of them two)
see lexical list atone
adapa1 aⁿdapa possessive classifier
Lvnadore
Tnmadato
Grammar
their (food+): form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with a 3 plural possessor (see dapa)
avtebe me vongoro adapatheir taro and almonds
Li-ejau none pine adapa ne kulumoe.They are preparing a huge meal for the villagers.
monone adapatheir (wooden) chest
ngaten' adapatheir food or their belongings
piene adapa Teanuthe language of (the people of) Teanu
see lexical list atenaka
adapa2 aⁿdapa possessive classifier
Grammar
their (relative): form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a 3 plural possessor (see dapa)
et' adapatheir mother
gi' adapatheir uncle
dapa tieli adapatheir brothers / their friends
see lexical list atone
adawo aⁿdawo noun
gencloud
adawo bevewhite cloud
adawo boroborodark, rainy cloud
seeiotirain cloud
adie aⁿdie
Anoun, relational
Anatomy
1archs.o.back
I-akale adie ini.He's scratching his back.
synonymutedie
2rear part of ‹s.th.›
La-koie Teanu la-koie ne Adie Vono.They came on shore on Teanu via the rear side of the island.
Li-vio li-dai adie nuduro.They are standing behind the fishing vine.
synonymviri
3later phase of ‹s.th.›
adie tomoro wakoafternoon
derivativen’ adieafter
Badverb
rareafterwards, then
Adie, pi' iape ini i-ka, i-atevo iepiene peini noma.Then her grandfather came in and told her a story.
📘 More commonly preceded with a preposition ne.
main entryn’ adie
adiro aⁿdiro noun
Fish
Egghead ParrotfishScarus oviceps.
seeboroparrotfish
ae1 ae interrogative
Lvnese
Tnmsive
1what?
A-vete a-ko ae?What did you say?
Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?How is this called in Teanu? [lit. this, in Teanu language, you say what?]
Na toñaki ae na?What sort of ship is this?
📘 Sometimes longer form nganae*, from ngaten' ae.
derivativengaten’ aewhat
2between pauseshesitation marker used when looking for one's words, esp. before a noun
Enga ini iote li-ko, ae, Takole.It also had another name, (what is it?) Takole.
seevele
~ae2 (i·)ae verb, transitive
Lvn~vi
Tnm~ake
1hollow out; remove stuff from ‹wood+›
Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
I-bo kuo awoiu, i-ae lema.Once he had cut out the canoe, he began to hollow out its inner part.
2affected objectdig a hole in ‹ground›
Li-mabui li-ae tanoe, wako ka li-lateli teve.They quietly dug a hole in the ground, and put (the treasure) there.
3effected objectdig ‹hole› in s.th.
Li-ae kie.They're digging a grave.
4dig out, harvest ‹yam, hill taro›
Na uo kula kupa ka pi-ae.These are a few yams we just dug out.
Pe-le, p-ae none! P-ae jebute, me pe-tau me p-e!Go and dig out some food! Dig out some taros you can cook and eat!
see lexical list at~bi ①harvest
aele aele ale noun, relational
Lvnkele
Tnmagela
POc*qaqe (?)
Parts of the legaele
aele lower limb, leg
waluko thigh, hip
visibaele knee
waburo kneecap
belemele ankle
bava aele foot
uta aele heel
vidiviko ne aele toe
Anatomy
s.o.lower limb: leg, foot
Loubo iote i-ke vidiviko ne ale ene.A crab has bitten my toe.
~la aele phrasal verb
take legstake a number of steps
I-la aele wa-tuo.He took six steps.
Aele Teulungo aele teuluŋo proper noun
Mythology
pillow legsname of a Spirit (tamate), with thick legs
see lexical list attamate
aero1 aero noun
Lvnere
Tnmeira
The pigstry fence (aero peini pwoi).
POc*qaRa
1fence, hedge
aero pe idi li-ejau i-dai manethe fence erected around the dancing area
2espfence around pen, in a farm; hence pen
Aero iupa i-vio vitoko na.Our (pig) pen is very close.
3genlimit, border
aero ne matarone [limit of entrance] threshold
4hencedistrict, area, territory
aero iadapa Teanuthe territory of the Teanu tribe
aero2 aero noun
POc*kaRi
Sea
1genseashell of any form
Le-le ne touro li-odo aero?Shall we go to the reef shore and look for seashells?
2espbivalve shell, traditionally used as an instrument to grate (~lu) coconut flesh or scrape the skin of tubers
aero we anive aero we anive noun
Sea
shellfish for dugongsmall cone shell used as traditional money (viko) in Vanikoro, and other parts of MelanesiaConus musicus ceylanensis.
Li-ia aero.scrape cone shells to make cowries
Li-loko aero we anive, li-si kangele i-ke mina.They collect cone shells, and cut off the mollusc part.
synonymvesevelae
explanationviko
aeve aeve noun
Lvnwoie
1the sun
Aeve pana!The sun's hot!
Li-tabe i-le i-wene ne aeve me kokoro.They bring it out to lie in the sun so it dries up.
2espthe sun in its daily course, as a reference for indicating the time of the day
Aeve ka i-vene labiou awoiu.The sun has long risen already.
Aeve ka i-le.[the sun has gone away] It is early afternoon.
Aeve ka i-tavali.[the sun has gone down] it is late afternoon.
see lexical list atmoro ①
3hencehours on the clock; o'clock
Aeve ka tivi na? – Aeve ka tili.[lit. How many suns?] What time is it now? – It's five o'clock.
Ne-ko ne-tabo ne-le ne kulumoe ne aeve i-etengi wa-tili.I'll return to the village at 5pm [when the sun strikes five times].
agilo aᵑgilo noun
pointed arrowhead (of an arrow, puro), made of strong wood
Ni-le ni-sune puro agilo i-wene ene.As I was walking, I found an arrow with a pointed arrowhead.
Puro pon, li-bo agilo ene.That arrow was sharpened into an arrowhead.
see lexical list atvisone
~ago (i·)aᵑgo
Averb, transitive
1spear ‹fish+›
Ni-ago namuko i-kovi.I speared a fish but it escaped.
synonym~wete
2shoot ‹s.o., s.th.› using bow (visone) and arrow (puro)
La-le lai-ago telupe?Shall we go pigeon-hunting?
Basavono po le-ko li-ago idi, li-katei puro i-ke ka li-ago.When you want to shoot someone, you draw out an arrow and shoot.
synonym~wete
Bverb, indirect transitive
strike (s.o., s.th.: ñe) using a long object
U-la tepao u-ago ñe namuko pon.You spear the fish with a harpoon.
Besungale ini emele ero me ini biouro, i-ago ñe eo kape u-bu.mythologyBesungale is a woman with long breasts, with which she can strike you to death.
aguro aᵑguro noun
Lvnvegure
Entomology
k.o. ant
ai- ai· subject prefix
Grammar
you: variant of a- (2sg Realis prefix) before a vowel or certain monosyllabic roots
Ai-ovei Cindy?Do you know Cindy?
Ka ai-ve?Have you given birth?
aia aia
Lvnaia
Tnmape
Anoun, kinship
Kin
1father
ai' onemy father
aiayour father
📘 The symmetrical term is menu (pl. dameliko) or apali.
2classificatory father: any male member of the parental generation (F, FB, FZH, MZH…) except the maternal uncle (MB = gea)
Binterjection
father!affectionate address term, used by an elderly person, to a young man who has children – including to his own son. Sometimes a child's name is mentioned
Awis pine, aia!Thanks a lot, my dear! [lit. father!]
Mobo wako, ai' ie Womtelo!Good morning, father of Womtelo!
~aiae (i·)aiae verb, intransitive
s.th.be difficult
Piene adapa i-wen' moli, i-aiae tae!Their language is easy, it's not difficult.
Li-vete piene ñi i-aiae, ia li-lengi wako.They speak it with difficulty, but they understand it well.
Ni-romo viko i-aiae teve ene.Money is an issue for me.
antonym~wene molieasy
Ai’ akapa ajakapa noun
Christianity
our FatherGod
Ai’ akapa i-tabe ma ini boso eo ka uña damiliko iono.blessingLet our Father raise his hand above you and your children.
aidi1 aiⁿdi possessive classifier
Lvnadi
Tnmadeli
Grammar
form of the possessive classifier used for food, tools, customary possessions etc. (enaka*), with an impersonal possessor (idi ‘people’)
Na tanoe aidi abia.This land belongs to everyone.
Noma li-lanasu idi ne kula none aidi, we viñe buioe aidi.In the olden days, black sorcery would make use of someone's leftover food, or of their leftover betel nut.
see lexical list atenaka
seeiaidi
aidi2 aiⁿdi possessive classifier
form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with an impersonal possessor (idi ‘people’)
Et’ aidi li-odo uko ñe basa damiliko iadapa.The mothers are looking for lice in their children's hair.
Uk' aidi, li-labu motoro.In-laws are to be respected.
see lexical list atone