na1 na
1noun modifierthis N
None na, aña tamwaleko.This food tastes bad.
Uña ngaten' na, kape i-vio tev' eo.All those things will be yours.
Noma, ni-ajau nabene; basavono na ka tae.I used to smoke in the past; but now [at this moment] it's over.
2head of NPthis
Na nganae?!What's this?
Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na?Hey, people! What sort of ship is that?
Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?How is this called in Teanu? [lit. this, in Teanu language, you say what?]
3deictic frequently associated with personal pronouns; usually not translated
En’ na dameliko tae, ene na ka mwaliko pine.with 1sgI'm not a child, I'm a grown person!
Kupa na kupa mwaliko tae. Ka kaipa mwaliko na ia kupa na ngatene nga na.with 1plWe are not human. You people are human, but we are creatures like this.
Eo na a-te vele?with 2sgWhere do you live?
Eo na ai-ovei !Now that's something you know.
Idi na dapa li-tau jebute peini po li-kila idi.with 3plPeople have cooked taros for the wedding.
ne to ñe na ka Tekupiebetween here and Tikopia
Kape ne-te na labiou mijaka.I'll stay here for a little while.
Aero iupa i-vio vitoko na.Our (pig) pen is very close [from here].
Ne temaka kula nga ponu; na, engaiote.It's the case in some places; but here, it's different.
Ne tomoro nga na tae: bwogo!It was not during the day like this: it was night!
Na basavono na dapa va li-ka li-odo na.treasurePeople are still looking for it today.
Na kape dapa iakapa awoiu na ta!Now our people will be doomed!
synonymbasavono naat this moment, now
Focus marker
Eo na kape u-waivo ñe ene.Well, you're the one who's gonna tell me.
Dapa Tetawo, dapa ponu na li-abu dapa.It's the Tetawo people who killed them.
Dapa wopine iupa na li-ovei ebel’ ini.Our elders are the ones who’d know the proper (word).
seena ta
na2 na noun, relational
place of ‹s.o.,›
📘 Often implies that the event is only virtually present in the location — whether it has ceased to take place, or has not begun yet. of ‹›
U-nabe na moe iono.You mark the location of your (future) house.
Na moe enone i-vio re.Here is the location of my (former) house. / Here is where my house used to stand.
2house+remains, ruins
Dapa li-romo na kulumoe iadapa Mouro.They saw the remains of the Elves' village. associated with ‹s.o.›, whether in a temporary or permanent way
na ene pe ni-lebiethe place where I (usually) bathe
na ini pe i-te i-vongothe place where he eats
Na boe placename
place of sharksShark place: name of a spot on the northwest coast of Banie island, between Lale and Lovoko
4itinerary taken by ‹s.o.› in a past or future journey; steps
Kape le-tabo le-katau na kiapa ponu.Let's retrace our own steps again.
na3 na subordinator
shorter variant of nara* ‘Apprehensional’
U-vio beiuko na u-tabau!Stand firmly, don't fall down!
~nabe (i·)naᵐbe verb, transitive
1mark ‹›, leave a visible mark
U-nabe na moe iono.You mark the location of your (future) house.
Basa i-abu i-ka i-vesu mijaka, i-nabe i-wene, i-ko pon Toplau ie da viñevi pon.There's a place where the mountain goes down and then up again? well, there's a (visible) spot there: they say that's where the women's secret house is found.
Ini i-le i-la voko. I-lui i-la i-teli ne temaka na ini po i-tuku ini i-abu pon, i-nabe ñe voko.He took a stone, and carried it to the location where he had been going down (in the forest); he marked it with the stone.
2abstrindicate the limits of ‹›, delimit, define; hence give precise instructions
Dapa ka li-sube nuduro pe uña teliki li-la li-mini dapa ka li-ke li-da tanoe pe li-nabe li-mini dapa.They have committed an infraction: while our chiefs had granted them some land, they crossed the limits of that territory which had been defined for them.
synonym~tobo ⓒ
3measure ‹›
Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
synonym~tobo ⓒ
4betroth ‹s.o.›; engage ‹woman› as s.o.’s future wife
Kupa pi-nabe emele iamela i-ka teve men’ iaba.We are betrothing your daughter to our son.
Ka li-nabe keba ia mamote ba-kila keba tae.We're engaged [lit. they've ‘marked’ us] but we aren't married yet.
📘 The family of the man pays a solemn visit to the parents of the future bride. The engagement ceremony takes the form of a gift, esp. of customary money (viko). Sometimes, a black rope (tero bworo) is given to the girl to wear on her wrist, as a sign of engagement.
synonym~vi nuduro
synonym~teli mama
nabene naᵐbene noun
uie nabenetobacco leaf
abwa nabene [tobacco colour] red-brown colour
~ajau nabene verb-object idiom
~ejau ‘do, make’ + nabene
do tobaccosmoke
Noma, ni-ajau nabene; basavono na ka tae.I used to smoke in the past; but now it's over.
n’ adie naⁿdie
1spatialin the back ofbehind ‹s.o.›
U-ka n’ adie ene.Come behind me.
2on the other side of ‹a place›: across, beyond
n' adie kulumoeon the other side of the village
n' adie ngamulibeyond the ocean
ne Adie Vonoplacenameon the rear side of the island
3after ‹a period of time›
n’ adie ebieve tilutwo years from now
temporalafterwards, then
Nga mwaliko i-bu, dapa le-le le-iu ebele ini. N' adie, dapa abia ne kulumoe kape le-bei bete.When somebody dies, people bury their body. Afterwards, everyone in the village will hold a funeral ceremony.
Synt.Typically expressed as a sentential topic.
rarefoll. by clauseafter, once (an event takes place)
Ne adie le-lebie awoiu, kape ne-re pele.Once we've had a swim, I'll go netfishing.
nadikete naⁿdikete noun
k.o. black ant
naka naka noun, relational
pole, rod, typic. made of wood
naka teuko noun
fishing rod
see lexical list at~oma
naka ruene noun
pole for doordoor latch, tradit. made of wood
namolo namolo noun
I-tabe apali ne bisa, ñe namolo.She's carrying her child on her shoulder, using a cloth.
Names for clothesnamolo
namolo clothes
vilisa clothes, costume, dancing gear
bele vilo tapa skirt
tekume women's tapa skirt
tolosai men's loincloth
lusa shirt
tekau trousers
labaro shoes
~koene put on, wear
~go ‹man› gird oneself
~ativi ‹woman› gird oneself
2clothes, items of clothing
namolo ie daviñeviwomen's clothes
Ini i-koene namolo 'none.He is wearing my clothes.
La-loko ngatene ada i-le: namolo iada, buioe ada me puluko, none ada.They took all their things with them: their clothes, their betel nut and lime, their food.
Namolo, noma, li-ejau ñe bele vilo.In the olden days, clothes used to be made with tree bark.
namuko namuko noun
Talking about fishnamuko
die fishbone
anes flesh
ngava scales
dekele tail
ava ①▻② pectoral fin
bea guts
~oma to fish, forage for seafood
mouro shoal of ‹fish›
anes namukofish meat
luene namukoa catch of many fish
Ni-ago namuko i-kovi.I speared a fish but it escaped.
Kape le-la teuko ne jokoro me le-katei ñe namuko.We'll take a fishing rod and go angling [for fish].
see lexical list at~omafishing techniques
nanana nanana locative
Cf. na ‘now’
1today, past or future
Ni-le ne revo nanana ni-romo meviko takataka.I was at sea today, and saw a sea krait.
Kape i-ka mobo we nanana?Will she come tomorrow, or today?
contrasts withpepaneyesterday
contrasts withmobotomorrow
2by extnowadays
Voko i-te ponu ra ka i-vagasi nanana.The stone has been there until this day.
Pe nanana ka li-vilu ne toñaki ie damala.Nowadays, people travel on Western-style ships.
nara nara na
ATense Aspect Mood marker
exclamatoryApprehensional modality: ( negative) might (happen); hence make sure P doesn't happen
Netebe pon, nara u-viane!This is mud here, make sure you don't stumble!
Nara sa i-meli!Make sure you don't end up heartbroken!
Nara le-langaten' tae!with negationWe might be unable to work!
1used as subordinatorto avoid P, for fear that P; so that not P
Le-la i-avo korone nara i-sabu.We must hook (the bait) firmly for fear it might fall off.
Li-avi ñei, nara sukiro peini ma dapa i-wene ene.They're using tongs, for fear that the dirt on their hands might touch it.
Noma li-madau pe moe moboe abia ene, li-ko na kape idi le-wete dapa ne visone me puro.Our ancestors used to avoid having too many openings in their houses, for fear of being shot with arrows.
2+ (kape +) Irrealiscomplementizer after certain predicates: (beware+) that not
Ni-madau ñe eo na kape u-ke ene!I'm scared of you, you might bite me!
U-botongo ini nara kape i-koie ne moe.Please stop him from coming into the house.
Mat’ eo nara kape u-wasi ñe idi ’tapu.Be careful not to give (the secret) away.
nasu nasu noun, relational
personal belongings of ‹a dead person›, consisting of various objects: clothes, mats, baskets
Li-loko nasu idi po li-bu me le-su.We collect the belongings of the person who died, and set fire to them.
AnthropologyThese personal belongings were traditionally cremated (~su ①) in a fire, during a funeral ritual. A similar yet different type of funeral ceremony, sometimes held together, ended with the sinking of the dead person's mats in the sea (see ~lu bete).
contrasts withngatenebelongings of a live person
Cremating a dead person's belongingsLi-su nasu idi
Li-su nasu mwaliko pe i-bu ne telepakau Teanu. Kape li-la nasu mwaliko po i-bu pon, pine tae; li-lateli ne bete awoiu li-lui me topulau li-lateli ne to. Idi li-koie ne topulau li-anu kava awoiu li-e vekai, ia nasu mwaliko pe i-bu pon i-wene me idi le-romo. Awoiu pon ka awoiu ponta, ka daviñevi (idi mwalikote tae) daviñevi li-la bete nasu mwaliko pe i-bu i-wene ene pon li-lui ka li-su.
There is a tradition on Teanu, to burn the belongings of a person who died. People will collect some of the belongings of the person who died and place them on a mat, which is then brought to the customary house (toplau). The villagers come in, drink kava and eat the pudding, while the person's belongings are there for everyone to see. Finally, the women – never the men – seize the mat with the dead person's properties, and they set fire to it.
na ta nata nata
1clause-final, following demonstrativefocal deictic, speaker-centred: this one
Epu 'none na ta!This is my grandmother.
Dapa gete 'none na ta ene!My boys, here they are!
contrasts withpon ta
2following demonstrative with temporal valuetime focus, proximal: now (and not any other time)
Katae ka ni-e na ta!Today is my first day eating this!
~nate (i·)nate verb, transitive
insult ‹s.o.›, swear at ‹s.o.›
Ini ka i-nat' ene.He's been insulting me.
~nate idi verb-object idiom
insult peopleswear around, utter swear words
U-nate idi etapu!Stop swearing around!
nava nava noun, relational
what relation to ‹s.o.›? Question word standing for kin term
Ini nava eo?What is she to you? (e.g. your sister? cousin?)
ne1 ne
1with or without motiongeneral locative preposition: at, in, on
ne sekelein the garden
ne lema inside
ne to in the middle
Kape i-ka ne kulumoe na.She'll come to this village.
I-sabu i-abu ne ero.He fell down in the river.
Noma, li-apinu ne mwoe.In olden times, people used to cook in the house.
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Domesticated pigs are fed in the village, but wild pigs wander about in the forest.
Ene li-waivo ene ne “National University” ne Solomon islands.I did my studies at the National University in the Solomon islands.
MorphologyThe corresponding adverb is ene ② ‘in it, there’.
2temporal preposition: in, at, during
ne bwogoduring the night
Et' iape i-ka ne vonila.Her mother came in the evening.
n’ adie afterwards, then
1possessive linker used with certain nouns, espec. bodily fluids
abo ne enemy blood
panavono ne enemy sweat
I-katei ero ne et' iape.He's sucking on the milk of his mother.
📘 Nouns such as abo ② ‘blood’ and ero ② ‘milk’ are original in encoding their possessor using ne. Yet they are also compatible with the more common linker peini.
2espfoll. by personal pronounrelative of (s.o.), member of o.'s kin
dapa ne enemy relatives [lit. those of me]
Kape u-romo dapa ne eo metae.You won't be able to see your relatives any more.
Datilu ne ene kape la-ka la-romo ene.Two relatives of mine will come visit me.
seedapa enonemy family
ne2 ne
clause-finallythis: proximal demonstrative, pointing to the speaker's sphere
nga nelike this
Okoro pon i-wene vele? – Ene! Ene ni-labu ne.And where is that knife? – Here! I'm holding it here.
ne-3 subject prefix
1st singular subject prefix for irrealis (opp. realis ni-)
Ne-le ne-re pele.I’m going net-fishing.
Ne-ko ne-la awis pine tev' eo.I’d like to thank you.
seeene ①1sg free pronoun
-ne4 suffix
non-productive suffix used to derive some verbs into nouns (nomen actionis)
~puie → puiene, pienetalk → speech, language
~si ①sivenedraw, write → drawing
~savasavenebuy → money
~to ③tonepole → a pole
~makomakonedance → a dance
nebe1 neᵐbe noun
1flounder, soleBothidae spp.
2esplemon soleMicrostomus kitt.
nebe2 neᵐbe noun
New Guinea RosewoodPterocarpus indicus.
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
nedemo neⁿdemo
subject temaka ‘place’ explicit or notbe night, be dark
(Temaka) ka nedemo.It's already dark.
(Temaka) mamote nedemo we ka tomoro?Is it still dark? or is it daylight already?
during the night
Li-mako li-mako, nedemo, tomoro, nedemo, tomoro…They danced on and on, during the night, during the day, the night, the day…
neido neiⁿdo noun, relational
(?) POc*natu-child
1small ‹of animal›
neido kulia puppy
neido poia piglet
neido kulevelu [baby fowl] chick
2figforms diminutives
neido kongesmall shrimps
3+ name of action“child of (doing)”: jocular way to assign a nickname to s.o., based on his/her characteristic or habit
neido unuo[stealing kid] a thief
neido uñebe[seducing kid] a womanizer
~nene1 (i·)nene verb, intransitive
Viko i-nene.The treasure was shining.
~nene2 (i·)nene verb, transitive
U-ka u-nene ise ene!jocular provocationCome suck my dick!
nengele neŋele noun
1components, pieces, parts of a bigger whole
nengele kuothe elements of a canoe
nengele moe elements of a house, carpentry
Kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.canoeYou cut out the big rail, and then the smaller pieces.
2bodyparts, limbs
Ne-labu ebel' ini pe nengele i-meli.I'll massage her body because some spots (on her body) are painful.
Tavsone ponu i-abu nengele idi.Covid-19That sickness weakens the body. [lit. it strikes one's limbs]
3accessories for ‹›
nengele makone[accessories of dance] the accessories necessary to carry out traditional dances (instruments, jumping boards+)
nengele moe neŋele moe noun
Elements in a house structurenengele moe
bali overhanging pole, eaves
bali peini telemoe plinth pole
iuro main central pillar
iutego corner pillar
digo secondary pillar
basadigo tie-beam
otovo ; sodo otovo sago thatch roof
womoe main purlin
dienebe light purlin
lo rafter
pumene ridgepole
pumene aplaka secondary ridgepole
busumoe ridge-flashing
elements of housethe various structural components of a house and its roof
nero nero adjective
Lvnnasa apalioko
Tnmnasa piñe
(?) Engnarrow
netebe neteᵐbe antebe noun
1marsh, swamp
Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.Swamp taros are planted in swamps.
2mud, muddy place
Netebe pon, nara u-viane!This is mud here, make sure you don't stumble!
derivativeloubo antebe[mud crab] k.o. crab
neuko neuko noun
POc*nopuqSynanceia, stonefish
stonefishScorpaenidae spp.
ni- ni- subject prefix
Tnmni-, ne-
1st singular subject prefix for realis (opp. irrealis ne-)
Ni-ovei.I know.
seeene ①1sg free pronoun
nidilo niⁿdilo noun
nidilo moloered ant
nine nine noun
k.o. wrasse
nine peini motono noun
wrasse of the oceank.o. wrasse from the deep sea
Niteni niteni placename
the island of Nendö or Santa Cruz
Dapa Niteni li-ejau viko ñe viavia mamdeuko.The people of Santa Cruz make money using feathers of the Myzomela bird.
nobwogo noᵐbʷoᵑgo locative
last night
Nobwogo miko i-la i-wai moe ne.Last night an earthquake shook the houses here.
Nom’ prefix
noma ② ‘face; cape+’
Cape, Point: prefix used for most capes or promontories around the coast of Vanikoro islands
Nom’ NomianuCape Nomianu
Nom’ LevesuCape Levesu
Nom’ LabiouCape Lambiou, Nomlambiou Point
Nom’ LoubaidoCrab Cape
Nom’ NogureCape Nongure
Nom’ ViouCape Fiou, Astrolabe Point
Nom’ NaguluNomnangulu Point
noma1 noma
Anoun, relational
viabasa ini ka noma ini ka mata iniher hair, her face, her eyes
Ni-aka noma.I'm washing my face.
seetanomaface, forehead
2genfront part of ‹›
noma toñakithe prow of the ship
noma nudurothe two ends of the fishing-vine
see lexical list atkuocanoe
3time periodend of ‹›
ne noma meteleat the end of the month
1spatial meaningin front
2temporal meaningbefore this, previously
Noma, viabas' ene i-ako.My hair used to be blond.
3espa long time ago, in the old days
Noma li-katau ñe metele.calendarIn the old days, people would just refer themselves to the moon.
pe noma adjective
of the pastancient, old; historic; traditional
kulumoe pe nomaa historic village
iepiene pe nomatraditional legends
Piene adapa Teanu, ia vesepiene pe noma.This is Teanu language, but with some archaic words.
dapa noma noun
those beforethe people of the past, the ancestors
Dapa noma li-vo kangele kome li-ia kome.People in the past used to break giant clams and grind them into axes.
Dapa iakapa noma li-ovei pe li-pwalau.Our ancestors used to practice navigation.
noma2 noma noun
(?) noma ① ⓐ ‘face, front part of (island)’
1promontory, cape
Li-da noma re li-ka.They crossed the cape over there and came here.
Nomlemlesu noma pine.Nomlemlesu is a major promontory.
📘 Most cape names begin with the syllable Nom’, from noma ②.
2reef, shore
Noma, nuduko, ero pe i-wene ne moboe voko ne noma.In the past, our mirrors were just water puddles in a stone hole on the reef.
derivativenom’ olebeach
nomapu nomapu noun
k.o. treeSecurinega flexuosa.
Nomianu nomianu
Aproper noun
Northeasterly wind, blowing between Tokoloutu and Tangake
see lexical list atngiro
Nomianu: a small islet (temotu) located on the northeastern coast of Teanu island
Nom’ Nomianu placename
name of the northeast cape (Nom’) on Nomianu islet
La-ke la-da noma re le-ka re, Nom’ Nomianu re.They came out and turned up around that point over there, around Nom' Nomianu.
nom’ ole nomole nomole noun
front of sandsand beach
Laperusi vana i-moloe ne nom’ ole take ne.Lapérouse used to stroll around along that sand beach over there.
none1 none noun
Potato yamDioscorea bulbifera.
Uo moloe na, samame none ka longo.Here is some Red yam, together with Potato yam and Lesser yam.
seeuoGreater yam
none2 none noun
Around foodLi-ejau none
none food; meal
~womanga feed ‹s.o.›
~e eat (tr.)
~vongo ; ~labu ngatene eat (intr.); have a meal
~apinu ; ~ejau ngatene cook, prepare food
~tau cook ‹food›
~vai bake ‹food› in oven
~wapono reheat ‹food›
awene stone oven*
motoe raw, uncooked
moioe cooked, done
aña taste
enaka my [food]*
None na, aña tamwaleko.This food tastes bad.
A-mene pe u-e none ponu?Aren't you tired of eating that food?
Etym.Semantic extension of none ①.
irregular pluralwonone
2meal, dinner; esp. collective meal, feast
Dapa teliki ka dapa wopine li-ajau none.The chiefs and the elders were having a feast.
Nubuko nuᵐbuko placename
ne + ubuko
in the bayNubuko, a place located on the east coast of the main island Banie
nubule nuᵐbule noun
whitewood (Euphorbiaceae)Endospermum medullosum.
nuduko nuⁿduko duduko noun
1glasses, spectacles
nuduko 'nakamy glasses
nuduko peini mata idi tamwaleko[glasses for bad eyes] prescription glasses
Li-romo ñe duduko we damala pe times of LapérouseThey were watching using the spyglass of the foreigners from France.
poss. classifierenaka
Noma, nuduko, ero pe i-wene ne moboe voko ne noma.In the past, our mirrors were just water puddles in a stone hole on the reef.
nuduro1 nuⁿduro noun
centipedeChilopoda spp.
tetawene peini nuduro noun
geometrical pattern similar in shape to a centipede
nuduro2 nuⁿduro noun
by analogy of shape with the centipede (nuduro ①), designates various artefacts characterised by their length – and by similar social functions
1long rope made of rattan stems (woworo) tied together, used as a scareline for fishing; “fishing rope”, “scareline”
Li-ngago woworo awoiu ka li-kila li-ko nuduro.We tie together rattan stems, and call it a nuduro (scareline).
📘 Contrary to what is observed in other parts of the Pacific, this scareline does not include coconut palms or leaves.
Scareline fishing~lui nuduro
Basavono pe li-ejau nuduro, li-le li-toe woworo, awoiu li-ngago. Li-ngago awoiu ka li-kila li-ko nuduro. Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro; dapa kula li-vio ne revo li-dai adie nuduro li-abu revo, me le-labu namuko.
When we prepare the scareline, we go cut rattan stems and tie them together. Once they're tied together it becomes a ‘scareline’ (nuduro ②▻①). Some people pull the two ends of the line towards the shore, to a dry zone; others stand in the water, on the other side of the scareline, and hit the water to (scare and) catch the fish.
~lui nuduro verb-object idiom
carry the scarelinea fishing technique whereby a group of men surround the reef at low tide, holding a long ‘scareline’ (nuduro), and catch the fish kept prisoner within the line
Mobo kape le-lui nuduro me l-abu namuko.Tomorrow we'll carry the scareline to get some fish.
2palm of coconut or palmtree, displayed in some specific location to mark it as private or taboo; hence taboo, ban, prohibition to enter a place
~vi nuduro set a taboo leaf; reserve for o.s.
Gi' one i-la nuduro i-vio ne sekele / moe / moko… (ñe uie luro).My uncle put up a taboo in his garden / in his house / on the reef… (using a coconut palm).
Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro, me i-botongo temaka (ñe/mina idi).They put up taboo signs on the seashore, to protect the area (from poachers).
Mwalik' iote i-ka i-vokoiu nuduro.Someone came and tore out the taboo (leaf).
3figproscription, taboo, whether legal or moral
i-bei nuduro[trample on a taboo] deliberately infringe a proscription
i-sube ñe nuduro[make a mistake on a taboo] infringe a moral taboo; do wrong, intentionally or not
nuko nuko noun
coconut skirt: cloth-like fibrous material at the base of the coconut tree
nuko ie lurococonut skirt
synonymlaba luro
nga ŋa
Lvnnge, nenge
1+ NPas, like
abwa nga toloto [colour like the lagoon] turquoise colour
Noma ini nga et’ iape!His face is just like his mum's!
Nga tadoe i-ovei pe i-tomwoe.Just like spirits, they knew how to become invisible.
Li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.You cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of [lit. like] a semi-circle.
Basavono na ka tae, ka li-vesu bavede ñe kuo nga noma tae.Nowadays it's over: people don't sail any more like they used to [lit. like before].
derivativenga ponlike that
nga na adverb
like nowlike now, like this, like today
Ne tomoro nga na tae: bwogo!It was not during the day like this: it was night!
nga ne adverb
like thislike this: presentative accompanying gesture or reported speech
Biouro iape nga ne –It was long like this –
Tetawene kape le-si nga ne –The tattoo designs, they would draw them like this –
Dapa Teanu, buro peini li-oburo nga ne –The Teanu people sing like this –
2in fiction narrativesdiscourse technique allowing to compare elements of fiction (age of characters, physical distances) with actual elements of the discourse situation
La-le, mamote somu tae, bwara nga ne to ñe na ka Tekupie.distanceThey didn't go very far – perhaps like (the distance) between here and Tikopia.
1+ Realis clauseas, like
Ewe, nga awa eo i-viane.Alright, if you want.
2habitual, + Realis or Irrealiswhen, whenever; every time
Nga aña ene tae, ni-le ni-wene, awoiu ni-lengi wako.Whenever I feel tired, I take a nap, then I feel better.
Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
Nga ne tomoro nga le-romo ngiro wako, le-vesu i-katau.If they found the wind to be fine, they would sail along.
3conditional, + Irrealisif, in case
Nga u-romo leka, kape u-kila.Should you have any eye contact with your cross-cousin, you will have to marry her.
Da viñevi kula nga awa dapa li-ko li-anu kava, mijaka, me le-lengi.Some women, if they want to drink kava, [they can] do so, a little, to get a taste of it.
Nga i-abu mata, kape bwara mata ini kilo ñei.counterfactualIf he had hit her eyes, she could have turned blind.
CTense Aspect Mood marker
exclamative sentence, Irrealis verbexpresses regret or blame: if only…, you should have…
Nga ni-anu!I wish I could drink it!
Ia ni-mui, nga u-ium’ u-viñ' ene!I didn't know, you should have first told me!
Nga u-ka wik iune!If only you had come a whole week!
Ngabe ŋaᵐbe placename
Ngambe, location on the southwest coast of Banie island
Li-makui Ngabe pon, temaka po toñaki tamwaliko.underwater archaeologyThey've been diving around Ngambe, at the site of the wreckage.
~ngago (i·)ŋaᵑgo verb, transitive
1tie, bind ‹rope, string+›
Li-ngago woworo awoiu ka li-kila li-ko nuduro.We tie together rattan stems, and call it a nuduro (scareline).
Kape le-ngago moboro se tiaume peini kuo.We fasten a rope to the hooks of the canoe.
2esptie ‹belt, clothing› around o.'s body
Ni-la bele vilo, ni-ngago ñe waluko ene.I took a bark cloth and wrapped it around my thighs.
3string ‹a bow› for shooting; hence bend ‹bow›
Pon i-la visone iape i-ka i-ngago. I-ngago wako, i-la puro kula i-vio ne waluko.He took his bow, and strung it. Once he'd bent it, he tied a few arrows around his hip.
nga li-ko ŋaliko ngaliko phrase
commlike (we/they) sayformula used when looking for words: ‘such as’, ‘like’; ‘how should I say’, ‘you know’
Webwe iape ngaliko i-vene i-wene ne ma ini.His armands, they were, like, they went all the way up his arm.
Dapa ka li-romo i-katau kape li-ejau ngapwae. Ngaliko: kiñe tamate, lusa ini, temaka ene pe moloe, ene po koro, ene po nga-toloto, ene ka ene nga-toloto –But the people had had the time to figure out how exactly they were going to proceed. Like – they could observe the grass skirts, the dancing gear; which part was red, which part was white, which part was blue, here and here…
nga ebele li-ko phrase
nga + ebele ⓐ▻⑥ ‘body; example’ + ~ko ② ⓐ
like (we/they) sayformula used when looking for words: ‘such as’, ‘like’; ‘how should I say’, ‘you know’
In’ na, nga ebele l’ko Teliki Makumoso, ai’ akapa, i-waivo idi ñe telepakau, ñe piene, i-waivo idi ñe ngatene pe li-ajau : nga ebele ko i-waivo idi pe li-vo mwoe, i-waivo idi pe li-bo vilo, kuo ngatene nga pon, wele, ngaten’ abia pon na…And that's him – how shall I say – that's Elderly Lord, our father, he's the one who taught us our culture, our language, everything we do: for example, he taught us how to build houses, how to create things with wood, how to cut canoes, how to make paddles, all those things…
Ngama ŋama placename
Ngama, location on the southwest coast of Banie
N' adie Laperus dapa li-ka Ngama susuko.Then Lapérouse and his men arrived precisely where Ngama is.
ngamuli ŋamuli noun
ocean, open sea
U-da viro awoiu, u-le ne motono ngamuli.As you go across the reef, you reach the open ocean.
Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
nganae ŋanae ngaten’ ae
Contraction ngatene ‘thing’ + ae ‘what’
Wako. Nganae a-ko u-vete?Alright. What do you want to say?
Ai-etengi ñe nganae?Why are you crying? [about what?]
Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.indirect speechI don't know what to do.
Na nganae?!predicateWhat's this?
nganae… tae construction
anything… notnothing
Nganae kape li-lengi melia dapa ñe tae.ParadiseNothing can cause them any pain.
Li-bi wa vilo nga pon, nganae nga bale, vewo, iliro, teno… li-kamai.They went to pick various fruits, [things] like breadfruit, chestnuts, lychees…, and they brought them.
ngapiene ŋapiˈene noun
dance festival
li-vete ngapieneannounce the festival
Ngapiene ka i-sali pon ta — bwogo tili.Then the festival comes to an end, after five days.
Kape le-tetele ngapiene pon.It was soon time to begin the festival.
📘 These dance festivals occur seldom nowadays; but they are central to many traditional stories.
Dance festivalsLi-mini ngapiene
Among major community events on Vanikoro, the main one was a dance festival called ngapiene. While such events occur seldom nowadays, they are central to many traditional stories. The festival revolved around a sort of greasy pole (blateno), erected in the middle of the village area (mane), loaded with fruit and food. Stomping boards (tepapa*) were laid out in a circle all around that pole, half-buried in the ground; for days on end, villagers would stomp those boards (~wate tepapa) and dance (~mako, ~pinoe) in a joyful and rowdy atmosphere. Such dancing festivals could last for several weeks on end, bringing the whole community together.
~mini ngapiene verb-object idiom
peoplegive festivalhold a festival
Ka li-la ngatene peini me kape le-mini ngapiene.They began the work so they could hold the festival.
ebele ngapiene noun
body of festivalend of the festival
Ini i-ko kape i-viane ebele ngapiene, i-ko nga nanana, mobo ngapiene awoiu.He said they would hit the end of the festival, that it would end the next day.
nga pon ŋaβon nga ponu ngapon
Lvnnenge pae
nga + ponu
1pointing to the addressee's actions or speechlike thatlike that, in that way
Nga ponu na susuko.It's perfect like that (like you're doing).
Pi’ on’ ka i-vete nga pon tae.My grandfather never said anything like that.
contrasts withnga nelike this
2something like that: approximately
Li-apilo toñaki awoiu, bara i-vagas’ metele tuo nga ponu.The building of the ship must have taken about six months, something like that.
3commedging strategy in speech‘and so on’, ‘that sort of thing’. Generally not translated
Li-toe iuro, ae, digo, we uña ngatene nga pon.They cut out pillars, beams, and other pieces like that.
Li-ovei pe li-tomoe, li-ovei pe li-tabo li-ka, nga ponu.They know how to disappear, how to appear again, that sort of thing.
4commjust, only: restrictive
Ni-ovei mijaka nga ponu.I only know a little.
Ponu kava pon, piene peini kuledi nga pon.And so, the story of kava is just a short one like that.
Sande, moro pine, pe li-langatene tae, pe li-tamava, pe li-te ne moe nga pon.Sunday is an important day – one when we don't work, when we pray, when we just stay at home.
Telepakau pe noma, basavono po li-ve dameliko, nga emele kape li-abu dapa. Kape le-loko ne i-te iune ngapon, li-abu dapa.According to an ancient practice, when female children were born, they would be killed. People would keep only one daughter; others would be killed.
1anaphoric referenceit's like thatit goes on like that, in the same manner; hence continuously, repeatedly
Ka ne basakulumoe pine nga ponu.And in the bigger island, it was the same.
Moro abia pon, nga pon.The same would happen every day.
2pointing to the addressee's actions or speechthat's it
Ewe, kape nga ponu.predicative, future markedYes, that must be it. [lit. it will (be) like that]
ngapungo ŋapuŋo noun
k.o. dark-coloured shore crabGrapsus albolineatus.
ngapwae ŋapʷae adverb
Lvnnenge ese, nengese
Tnmnabo sive, wosive
Cf. nga ⓐ▻① ‘like’
Pine ngapwae?How big is it?
Buioe amela, kela bai-odo ngapwae?Your areca nuts (for you to chew), how will you find them?
Dapa ka li-romo i-katau kape li-ejau ngapwae.The people had had the time to figure out how exactly they were going to proceed.
ngasune ŋasune engasune
same, identical (as, nga ⓐ▻① or samame)
Ene ngasune nga eo.I am just like you.
Ka vitoko ngasune nga piene akapa.It's nearly the same as our language.
“Menu aplaka 'none”, we “men’ one aplaka”, da-tilu ngasune susuko.“Menu aplaka 'none”, or “men’ one aplaka” [my little baby], both (word orders) are equally correct.
Ni-toe jokoro iote me susuko me ngasune semame jokoro iote.I cut a bamboo rod to the same length as the other one.
equally, alike
Iaero tilu ponu da la-kopine engasune.These two rivers are equally deep.
Dapa li-romo i-aiae ngasune nga ene.They find it difficult, as much as I do.
ngaten’ ae ŋatenae interrogative
ngatene ‘thing’ + ae ‘what’
what thingwhat?
Li-le pe ngaten' ae?Why did they go? [lit. they went due to what thing?]
main entrynganae
ngatene ŋatene noun
1concrthing, object
Uña ngaten' na, kape i-vio tev' eo.All those things will be yours.
Li-makui li-odo ngatene peini toñaki ie Laperus.They search underwater for objects from the wreck of Lapérouse.
2esps.o.'s belongings; luggage
Uña ngaten' enaka i-wene tev' iu re.My stuff (bags+) is up over there.
poss. classifierenaka
3piece of food
Le-le le-labu ngatene?Shall we go grab something? (=food)
Li-e ngatene pe mie, li-ko “te masi”.The food they eat is smelly, they call it “te masi”.
4rareanimal; non-human creature
Ngatene ponu, li-romo nga mwaliko, ia mwaliko tae.SpiritsThose creatures look like they're human, but they are not.
Ka kaipa mwaliko na, ia kupa na ngatene nga na.You people are human; but we are just non-human creatures [lit. just things] like this.
5abstrthing; topic, issue, idea, meaning
Ngatene pon etapu tamwase pe li-vet’ piene ñi.This topic is very delicate to talk about.
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.polysemyIt is the same word, but with two distinct meanings. [lit. it says two things]
6effort, activity, work
Ni-ovei ni-ko ngatene abia teve eo.I know you have a lot of work. [lit. many things are with you]
Awis pine peini ngatene pe a-la ponu.Thank you for your efforts. [lit. for the things you ‘took’]
derivative~la ngatenework
ngava ŋava noun
U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.You scrape off the scales, and then gut it.
~nge (i·)ŋe verb, transitive
chew ‹sugarcane+› so as to suck out its juice while avoiding to eat the fibres
Dameliko li-nge to.The kids are chewing some sugarcane.
Lekele i-nge wa vede.Flying-foxes chew fruits of pandanus.
ngele ŋele interrogative
1in questionswho
Ngele? Sintia pe Niteni?Who? Sintia from Santa Cruz?
Ngele i-wablei kupa?Who is teasing us?
Buluko ie ngele ponu?Whose flashlight is that?
Enga eo ngele?What [lit. who] is your name?
contrasts withnganaewhat
2freqwhen hesitating on s.o.'s nameer –
Ka dapa ka li-odo ngele, Laperusi.So they went to search for, er, Lapérouse.
3indefinitesomeone; anyone
N-i, ia ni-lengi ngele i-laiaini tae.I called out, but I didn't heard anybody reply.
derivativengele ngawhoever
ngele ngele
who whowhoever
Ngele ngele i-te i-katau ñe kulumoe iakapa na, kape i-lengi aña ruene.Whoever lives on our island can hear that noise.
ngele nga ŋeleŋa
1in protasiswho ifwhoever; anyone who
Ngele nga i-ko i-oburo buro ae pon, kape i-obur’ i-le.Whoever wants to sing a song, they can go ahead and sing.
Kape nga ngele nga i-bu, kape le-lengi aña ruene pe li-ko.Every time someone dies, we hear the noise of that door.
2in main clauseanyone, whoever
Ngele nga, i-le i-toe kuo iape ne ngogoro.Anyone can go cut his canoe in the bush.
ngilo ŋilo noun
river eelAnguilliformes.
contrasts withmevikosea eel
ngiro ŋiro noun
The winds (ngiro) of Vanikoro
Wind namesEnga ngiro
Palapu N wind
Tokoloutu NNE wind
Nomianu NE wind
Tangake Nomianu E wind
Tangake ESE wind
Tonga SE wind
Teulu SSE wind
Laki SSW wind
Vakasiu SW wind
Tokolau W wind
Tokolau Palapu NW wind
Ka iolulu! tebo! ngiro!There was thunder! rain! wind!
Ngiro i-aka.The wind is blowing.
Ngiro ka i-lubi.The wind has turned.
Vilisao ini ngiro korone.A tornado is a powerful wind.
ngogoro ŋoᵑgoro
bush, forest (opp. kulumoe, village)
Ngogoro ka i-maili.The bush has grown there.
Li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro ka li-tabe li-kamai li-wapio i-vio ne moe.They went to chop firewood in the bush, then brought it back and piled it up in the house.
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Domesticated pigs are fed in the village, but wild pigs wander about in the forest.
placebe overgrown by nature
Ka ngogoro tamwase.with perfect ka ②This place is totally overgrown.
~ngongo (i·)ŋoŋo verb, intransitive
POc*ŋoRasnore, grunt, breathe
Ini i-ngongo tamwase.He's snoring a lot.