ta1 ta particle
1clause-final, following pronoun or demonstrativefocus marker on deictics: this one, that one
Ini ta!That's it!
Dapa gete 'none na ta ene!My boys, here they are!
derivativena tafocal deictic, speaker-centred
derivativepon tafocal deictic, addressee-centred
2following demonstrative with temporal valuefocus marker for time: now or then (and not any other time)
Katae ka ni-e na ta!Today is my first day eating this!
~ta2 (i·)ta verb, transitive
1peel ‹fruit, tuber+›
Daviñevi li-ta bele mina.The women are peeling out the skin (of yams).
I-ta balawe ñe okoro aplaka.He's peeling a pineapple with a small knife.
2split ‹nut› in two
li-ta vebesplit a ‘cutnut’
~ta3 (i·)ta verb, intransitive
1plant+grow spontaneously
None pon, ini ñepe pe i-ta, pe li-wowo tae.This kind of tuber grows spontaneously [by itself], it is not planted.
2with adv. ñeiemerge, appear, come to light
Basavono po kulumoe i-ta ñei, Teliki Makumoso li-ko Banie.myth of originWhen our country emerged, our Supreme God was called Banie.
~tabau (i·)taᵐbau
Averb, intransitive
fall on the ground
U-vio beiuko na u-tabau!Stand firmly, don't fall down!
Mata ini i-ke me i-romo kape i-mako vele, ña i-tabau.dancing mask[The dancer] looks through [the holes] so he can see where he's dancing, to avoid tripping up.
Bsecond verb, intransitive
resultative construction(do V) so as to make s.th. fall; bring down
I-romo vilo iote wako, i-toe i-tabau.When he sees a tree that fits, he chops it down.
Ngiro i-aka ponu ra ka i-vokoiu wolowolo pon, i-vokoiu ka i-tabau.The hurricane blew so hard that it destroyed the cross, and brought it down.
~tabe (i·)taᵐbe verb, transitive
1carry ‹child+› above o.'s belt, i.e. in o.'s arms or on o.'s shoulders
Ini i-aiu i-ka i-le i-koie i-tabe pi' iape.She came into the room and took (the baby) in her arms.
I-tabe apali ne bisa, ñe namolo.She's carrying her child on her shoulder, using a cloth.
see lexical list at~labu
2gencarry ‹s.th.› in o.'s arms (opp. ~valangia ‘carry w. stick’)
La-tabe voko la-lui.They picked up some stones and carried them away (in their arms).
Dapa kula ka li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro ka li-tabe li-kamai ne moe.Some men went to cut firewood in the forest and brought it back home (on their shoulders).
Ni-tabe mana luro.I'm carrying some rice (on my shoulder).
see~valangiacarry on stick
3espraise ‹o.'s hand, ma› as a gesture of blessing
Ai’ akapa i-tabe ma ini boso eo ka uña damiliko iono.blessingLet our Father raise his hand above you and your children.
~tabo (i·)taᵐbo
Averb, intransitive
repeat, say again
I-kae? Mou, u-tabo!What? Come again!
I-tabo!when transcribing[let it repeat!] Play it again!
1commfoll. by verb V2, with same subjectrepeat doing s.th., do again
Le-tabo le-le.[we repeat we go] Let's go there again.
La-tabo la-teli utele i-le la-wo enga temaka.Alright, let's start again the list of placenames.
Kape ne-tabo ne-le metele iote pe kape i-ka na.I'll go again next month.
Revo i-tabo i-ma.It's low tide again.
Ni-tabo ni-mui.I've forgotten again.
A-ko u-tabo u-vongo?Do you want to eat more? [lit. to repeat eating]
2sometimpersonal 3sg, with non-verbal predicatebe again
I-tabo dapa Iura.+ noun phraseIt's (a photo of) the Vanuatu people again.
Menu emele ie teliki i-tabo sa-pine.The chief's daughter is pregnant again.
Taluaito kape i-padi basa ini: ne to ne, koro; ne lava tilu, kape bworo. Awoiu kape i-tabo koro pwo mijaka.The (heathen) priest would paint his head: white in the middle; black on each side; and then, a bit of white again underneath.
3do back; do an action that compensates or reacts to a previous action
Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.They open the door, and then shut it back.
Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko, pi-tabo pi-wete kula motoe.Our roofing has been damaged, we're making a new one again.
rareprecedes verbagain
Labiou tae, dapa ka tabo li-ke li-ka.After a moment, again they came out.
MorphologyThe particle occurs at the same place as the auxiliary-like verb form ~tabo, except that it does not take verbal prefixes.
tabuio taᵐbujo noun, relational
~tabulu1 (i·)taᵐbulu verb, transitive
decorate ‹building+› in preparation for a celebration
Pi-tabulu mwoe.We've decorated the house.
~tabulu2 (i·)taᵐbulu
Averb, transitive
roll ‹s.th. heavy›, e.g. a boulder
Ni-tabulu voko i-abu i-le ne gilita.I rolled a rock down into the valley.
seetovokowowooden rolls
Bverb, reflexive
s.o.roll ‹o.s.› on the ground
Va li-tabulu dapa ne ole.children playingThey roll in the sand.
tabuluburi taᵐbuluᵐburi noun
quiver: container used for storing arrows (puro, diro) during hunting or warfare
see lexical list atvisone
Tabuluburi, tonge iote pine pe li-loko puro i-koie ene. Li-akawo tabuluburi ne adie idi, puro i-vio ene. Basavono po le-ko li-ago idi, li-katei i-ke ka li-iui.
A quiver is a long sheath where you can insert your arrows. You hang it on your shoulder, with arrows inside. When you want to shoot someone, you draw out an arrow and shoot.
tadoe taⁿdoe
1ancestral spirit, representing the soul of an ancestor. These anonymous, invisible spirits haunt the island and live around humans
Nga u-le, ata tadoe kap' i-ejau bas' eo mumule.If you go there, the soul of spirits can make your head go crazy.
Dapa na ngatene nga tevie mwaliko, tevie nga li-romo nga tadoe.Tamate masksThese are special creatures, half man, half spirit.
Idi mwaliko li-tamava se tadoe, li-klasi li-ko kape le-le le-pinoe. Tadoe i-ka i-koie i-mako samame dapa me li-ejau makone korone.The men invoked the spirits, and told them they were going to dance. The spirits came in and began dancing with them, which gave power to the dances.
2sometused metonymically for the bush, the wild, e.g. for certain plant names when they are not fit for human consumption and belong to the forest
udo we tadoe noun
bananas for the spiritsa kind of crotonCodiaeum inophyllum.
3representation of spirits through sculptures or headdresses
makone iadapa tadoedance of the spirits
4deity, ancestral god worshipped in ancient times
Li-puie li-kilasi tadoe adapa.They were addressing their god(s).
Tadoe adapa pon, enga ini Vilisao.That god of theirs was called Filisao ‘Tornado’.
poss. classifierenaka
moe ma tadoe noun
gods' lairplace of worship of ancient gods; heathen temple
5sometthe Christian God
synonymmwaliko pine
slg‘devilishly’: intensifier
Biouro tadoe!It's terribly long!
Aña wako tadoe!It's incredibly delicious.
taduene taⁿduene noun
sardineClupeidae spp.
tae tae
1final position in verbal clausenegative particle for realis contexts: ‘not’, ‘does not’, ‘did not’ (opp. metae, irrealis negation)
Ene ni-mede kaipa tae!I'm not lying to you!
Pi’ one i-vete tae.My grandfather never told me.
Ka ni-lengi ni-ejau tae.storyI didn't hear it properly.
2final position in non-verbal clausenegative particle for non-verbal predicates: ‘is not’, ‘was not’
Ero tae.+nounIt's not water.
Pon kaiawo tae, ova revo.That's not smoke, that's steam.
Li-romo nga voko, ia pon voko tae.It looks like a stone, but it's not a stone.
Somu tae.+adjectiveIt's not far.
labiou tae not long after that…
Tae, ini tae. Iote teve.+free pronounNo, it's not her. It's someone else.
Ne tomoro nga na tae: bwogo!+locative predicateIt was not during the day like this: it was night!
1clause-final, following the subjectNegative existential: ‘there is no X’; be lacking, be absent
Ero tae.There's no water.
Ka nganae kape li-lengi melia dapa ñe tae, nganae pe kape li-ajau ñe ma dapa tae, nganae pe kape le-la tae.in ParadiseThere's nothing that can bring them pain; nothing that they must do with their hands; no work they have to do.
2aloneNegative answer: ‘no!’
I-ko “A-tomoli ko!” I-ko “Tae!”“You're lying,” he said; “No!” she replied.
3to no avail; in vain
I-atui i-atui: tae!He tried on and on – to no avail.
ka… tae construction
ka2 ‘Perfect’ + tae
no longer, not any more
Ka i-mo tae!accident+He cannot speak any more.
Ini ka emele aplaka tae, ini ka momoso iote.She's not a young girl any more, she's become a woman now.
Basavono na, kuo demene ka l-ejau tae.These days, outrigger canoes aren't being made any more.
Ka tae.existential predicateThere's not any more. / It's over.
taka taka noun
sandals, flip-flops, shoes; tradit. made with rope from coconut fibres (tenuro*)
takalamu takalamu noun
k.o. edible plant, similar to avocado
take take locative
variant of tetake ‘out, outside; towards the shore’
Laperusi vana i-moloe ne nom' ole take ne.Lapérouse used to stroll around along that sand beach over there.
main entrytetake
~tako (i·)tako verb, intransitive
be sincere, tell the truth
Ebele piene ? A-tako ?Really? Are you telling the truth?
seeebele pienetruth
takoie locative
main entrytetakoie
Takulalevioe takulaleˈfjoe Takole proper noun
Cf. (?) + vioe ‘taro’
“Takulalefioe” or “Takole”: name of a deity, mother of the tamate creatures
Tamate pon, et’ adapa pon “Takulalevioe”. Enga ini iote li-ko, ae, “Takole”. “Takulalevioe”, o “Takole”.As for the Tamate, their mother was called Takulalefioe. She also had another name, Takole. Takole, or Takulalefioe.
takuo takuo noun
1Dogtooth tunaGymnosarda unicolor.
2Albacore tunaThunnus alalunga.
taluaito taluaito noun
Vaeakau-Taumakotaulaituseer, prophet, shaman
1traditional healer – both a seer and a sorcerer
seetongolukilomedicinal leaves
2medical doctor
Taluaito i-la tongolukilo i-mini men' one.The doctor gave some medicine to my child.
tamana tamana numeral
linker between tens (or hundreds) and units
kwa-teva tamana tuaforty eight
rea iune tamana tidione hundred and nine
uie kwate tamana iunepage thirty one
Ebieve iono tivi? – Uluko tamana teva.How old are you? – Fourteen.
see lexical list attivi
tamate tamate
Motatamatedead person; soul, spirit; ghost; headdressPNVanuatu*qata-matedead person
Aproper noun
The dance of tamate creatures
Names of the Tamate spiritsEnga Tamate
Takole ; Takulalevioe the Mother of Tamate
Mata Tilu Two Eyes
Mata Teva Four Eyes
Aele Teulungo Pillow Legs
Kolokolo Chest Plate
a high-profile Spirit that comes out in villages during ritual dances and important celebrations
Ka pon dapa moro abia ponu, Tamate pon pe li-te ñi pe li-mako li-mako, nedemo, tomoro, nedemo, tomoro…Every single day, the Tamate creatures who lived there would keep dancing on and on – during the night, the day, the night, the day…
Tamate pon, et’ adapa pon “Takulalevioe”.As for the Tamate, their mother was called Takulalefioe.
Hist.This cultural practice was historically borrowed from the Banks islands (Iura) further south.
seetadoedeity, spirit, god
A set of tamate headdresses
metonmask, headdress worn during the tamate ritual dances, representing the tamate spirits
Tamate li-romo wako, ia idi li-madau.The dancing masks were beautiful, but scary. [lit. but one feared them]
Ka li-tobo ñe tamate pe ka mata mwaliko i-ke me i-romo.They've made holes in the Tamate masks, so that (the dancer) can see through.
derivativekiñe tamatefibres hanging down from tamate masks
~tamava (i·)tamava verb, intransitive
1invoke a deity or spirit (tadoe); worship
Temaka etapu, temaka pe li-tamava ene.A sacred place is one where people carry out their worship.
Idi mwaliko li-tamava se tadoe, li-kilasi li-ko kape le-le le-pinoe.The men invoked the spirits, asking them the right to perform the ritual dances.
Synt.The object constructs with the oblique preposition se.
2worship the Christian God; pray
Ene ni-le ni-tamava ne mwoe 'tapu.I went to pray in the church.
tamwaliko tamʷaliko tamwaleko adjective
1s.th.bad, unpleasant
vilo tamwalikobad plants (plants that are undesirable, uninteresting, etc.)
None ne aña tamwaliko.This food doesn't taste good. [its taste is bad]
2s.th.of poor quality
3ugly, unseemly
Ive? Ba-romo kupa wako we tamwaliko?Now what? Do you like us or not? [lit. do you see us as beautiful or ugly]
4in a bad state; out of order, damaged
Ni-lengi tamwaliko.I don't feel good.
Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko.dynamic readingOur roofing has been damaged. [lit. has gone bad]
Li-atevo piene peini toñaki ie Laperus pe tamwaleko.Let's tell the story of how Lapérouse's ship was destroyed.
5s.o., s.th.bad, evil, immoral
mwaliko tamwalikoan evil man
uro tamwalikoblack sorcery
6undesirable (that, pe23 + Clause)
Tamwaliko pe i-vio ne kulumoe iono ñoko.It would be a shame if (this plant) only grew in your village.
tamwalikose tamʷalikose
Lvn(visiale) wabeu
Tnm(vae) pamabo
rarebad, dangerous
Tamwalikose!That's terrible!
henceIntensifier: very, tremendously
Ni-bisi tamwalikose ñei!I'm very surprised by this.
Makone iote ni-romo ka wako tamwalikose!That dance I saw here was absolutely fabulous!
main entrytamwase
tamwase tamʷase postverb
Lvn(visiale) wabeu
Tnm(vae) pamabo
1intensifier: very much
Awa ene i-viaene tamwase!I absolutely love it!
Labiou tamwase kia ka la-lengi kia tae.We haven't heard from each other for a very long time.
Awis pine tamwase.Many thanks (for your attention).
Ne-ko ne-romo tamwase!I'd really love to see it!
2in excess, too much
Abiaini tamwase.It's too thick.
3sometespecially, particularly
Dapa tadoe li-ejau idi li-madau, tamwase ne bwogo.Ghosts scare people, particularly at night.
Dapa wopine na li-vete piene ne “ebele ini!” tamwase, pe li-ko motoro.The elders very often use this expression “it's wonderful”: they find it a nice word.
Tanemwa tanemʷa Tanema locative
piene adapa Tanemwathe language of Tanema
tanlavaki tanlavaki noun
A crocodile in Vanuatu
crocodileCrocodylus porosus.
tano tano noun
A kava bowl (tano)
wooden bowl used for liquids, espec. kava. The bowl has an elongated shape, and grooves on each side to let the liquid out
Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
seetekumetewooden bowl for serving food
tanoe tanoe noun
1ground, soil
Tanoe i-wai.earthquakeThe ground shook.
Li-ae tanoedig the ground
Dapa pe li-abu dapa li-bu, kape le-lui dapa le-teli dapa ne tanoe.Those who were killed were later buried in the ground.
2espland, insofar as it belongs to s.o.
Da la-via ñe tanoe.They're arguing about land.
Na tanoe aidi abia.This land belongs to everyone.
poss. classifierenaka
tanoma tanoma noun, relational
Tangake taŋake locative
Vaeakau-Taumakote Alunga?
Easterly wind, blowing between Nomianu and Tonga
Ngiro Tangake i-aka i-abu i-kamai tev' iu ne.The Tangake wind blows down from the east.
see lexical list atngiro
tangavisi taŋavisi adjective
Tangteala taŋteala proper noun
Tangteala, god of Arrows and Tornadoes: a god of destruction
Tangteala, ini tadoe pe i-ago idi ñe diro ka ñe vilisao.Tangteala is a god who strikes people with darts and tornadoes.
Viko iadapa nga pon, i-la i-teli teve Tangteala pon.They took their ritual money, and made an offering to Tangteala.
taña taɲa noun, relational
1ear, ears
Taña ini i-su.She's deaf.
Ene ni-lengi ñe taña ene, ka ebele piene, ene ni-le ene.I heard it with my own ears. It's the truth, I believe it.
2bundle ‹of bananas+›
taña udoa bundle of bananas
tapaia buioe tapaja ᵐbujoe noun
floor of wooden slats, made of areca wood (buioe)
📘 The wooden floor rests on the platform structure (tokoli) of a stilt house.
tapepa tapepa noun
present, offerings
uña tapepathe presents
~tataele tataele verb, intransitive
Kasule i-tataele ne ole.The vines have crept on the beach.
Abilo i-tataele ne tanoe.There's a snake crawling on the ground.
3baby+crawl, walk on all fours
Apali i-tataele ne bete ini.The baby is crawling on his bed.
4adultwalk carefully or slowly, stooping down, either due to old age, or as one hides
A-tataele nga pon pe i-ve?!Why are you stooping down like that?!
~tatale (i·)tatale verb, intransitive
Menu na, ka i-lubi ini i-wene ne sa me i-tatale.This child is able to flip and lie on his belly, (soon) ready to walk.
~tatawoe tatawoe verb, intransitive
Pele iono i-tatawoe ne temaka ene, ka ere.Your fishnet is damaged here, and there.
~tate (i·)tate verb, transitive
lay ‹mat› on the ground
Kape i-la mawene i-kamai i-tate.She can take a (coconut-leaf) mat and lay it on the ground.
~tau (i·)tau verb, transitive
1burn ‹land›, set fire to the ground – a slash-and-burn technique to prepare a garden for planting
Li-tau sekele ponu awoiu, moro iote li-le li-teli avtebe.Once they had burnt their gardens, the next day they planted some taros.
2freqcook ‹food›
Ne-tau namuko enaka ne-kae?How will I cook my fish?
P-ae jebute, me pe-tau me p-e!Dig out some taros you can cook and eat!
taugo tauᵑgo noun
tavake tavake noun
Vaeakau-Taumakotavaketropic bird w. long white tail
Black-naped TernSterna sumatrana.
~tavali (i·)tavali verb, intransitive
1s.o.go to the other side
2sunset: go down in the sky, during late afternoon
Awoiu, awoiu pon, i-le nga pon, aeve ka i-tavali ponu, dapa ka li-le li-vongo ne toplau.When everything was ready – about when the sun was going down – the men went to have dinner in their men's club.
see lexical list atmoro1
~tavea (i·)tavea verb, intransitive
float; drift
U-laioi bete ne mwotono me i-tavea i-le.You throw the mat into the ocean, so it drifts away.
Dapa ne da ka li-bu awoiu. Vana ka li-tavea li-koie li-sai i-katau temaka ponu.All their relatives died instantly. Their [bodies] were floating, washing ashore along the beach.
~tavie (i·)tavie verb, intransitive
be sick
I-tavie mijaka.She's a bit sick.
Kasule, li-ovei pe l-ejau ñe idi pe li-tavie.medicine leavesSome vines are useful for sick people.
I-ko i-la abo ne kaipa i-ko i-romo abo i-ko pi-tavie we tae.He wants to draw your blood and examine it to see if you are sick.
tawo1 tawo radical
‘below’: radical of several derivative words
tawora below
tev’ tawo down, on the lower side
contrasts withiu1above
tawo2 tawo noun
Chinese hibiscusHibiscus rosa-sinensis.
mana tawoflower of hibiscus
seevoroHibiscus tiliaceus
~tawoe (i·)tawoe verb, intransitive
be torn, be damaged
Ni-vene ne botu, tekau ene i-tawoe.As I climbed on the boat, my trousers got torn.
tawora tawora locative
Lvnleve lenu
1below; in the lower area
2geocentric coordinatesdown on the cardinal axis: towards northwest, north or west
Monone po ene ni-vete, ene tawora ne, ne utele vewo pine pe i-vio ne, pwama ole ponu.That chest I was talking about was located down there (northwest), by the large chestnut tree standing over there, on the beach.
te1 te preposition
shorter variant of teve* ‘with, at’
te2 te particle
foll. by negationintensifier of negation: (not)… at all, (not)… the least; (not) even
Ebieve awoiu, te li-romo li-tabo li-ka tae.Even after several years, they would never be seen again.
Ka te li-romo ngaten’ ae li-ejau tae!We didn't get to see anything properly.
Te iune i-te tae.Not even one (man) remained.
~te4 (i·)te
Averb, intransitive
1s.o.sit, be sitting
U-abu u-te u-ka!Come sit down here!
Bara ba-te ba-botongo okoro ponu.I'm afraid you may be sitting on my knife.
2gens.o.be located somewhere, whether sitting or not
Dapa gete li-te ne Toplau.The boys are in the Men's House.
📘 Inanimate subjects would take ~wene.
3s.o.remain, stay
Ka u-te!greetingGood bye! [lit. you're staying!]
Nga i-te kape li-abu.If he had remained (in the island) he would have been killed.
Mwaliko iune na ka i-te.There's only one man left (who can speak the language).
Li-te li-te li-ko “Mamote!”They waited, waited…, and said “No, not yet!”
5foll. by locativedwell, live
dapa pe li-te ne kulumoe nathe people living in this village
Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.
6be alive
Pon mamote i-te.He is still alive.
7foll. by predicate or other modifiers.o.be in such and such a condition, esp. temporarily
A-te moli?Are you free?
Ini i-te mumule ñe eo!He's crazy about you!
daviñevi pe li-te ne manokowomen who're having their periods
derivative~te wakobe well
BTense Aspect Mood marker
foll. by verb V2s.o.be doing s.th. Encodes progressive aspect
Menu i-te i-etengi.The baby was crying.
Dapa li-te li-oburo.They are singing.
-te3 (i·)te numeral
radical of tete* ‘three’
kwa-te[ten-three] thirty
tealongo tealoŋo noun
k.o. tree (Urticaceae)Pipturus argenteus.
Teanu teanu noun
Teanu, the northeastern island of the Vanikoro group; homeland of the Teanu language
piene adapa Teanuthe language of Teanu
Da-tilu pe Teanu; kulumoe iada Aneve.They were from Teanu; their village was Aneve.
📘 Nowadays, the island has only one inhabited village: Puma.
tebekuma teᵐbekuma noun
k.o. round basket, coarsely woven with coconut leaves, and used to carry food
see lexical list atuie luro
tebelia teᵐbelia noun
side of a ship
I-ka i-ka i-avo ne tebelia.[the ship] came drifting on its side.
tebene teᵐbene adjective
plant, animalof a pale or yellowish colour
kie tebene variety of Pandanus with yellow leaves
kava tebene variety of kava of a pale colour
bwoe tebene type of shark, pale-coloured
teblebe teᵐbleᵐbe adjective
slack, weak
Tero ponu, korone we i-teblebe?Is that rope tight, or slack?
tebo1 teᵐbo noun
Ka iolulu! tebo! ngiro!There was thunder! rain! wind!
tebo2 teᵐbo noun
Island cabbage (Malvaceae)Abelmoschus manihot.
tedele teⁿdele
faeces, shit
tedele kuleveluchicken shit
muk’ tedelek.o. fly
derivativemwa tedeleanus
rareshit! Expression of anger
Tedele! Awa ene i-aka ne apali aplaka na!Shit! I'm angry at that small child!
teili teili noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote ilia fan
1fan, tradit. woven with coconut leaves
U-la teili u-bi ñ‘ eo.Just take a fan and fan yourself.
📘 Fans are traditionally woven with coconut leaves. They are diamond-shaped, and have a handle at one end.
see~bi2to fan
see lexical list atuie luro
2the Fan: name of a constellation, whose stars seem to delineate a diamond-shaped fan with its handle
📘 This constellation is a subset of the one known in Europe as Orion: it includes the stars of Orion's belt, plus his sword.
teipu teipu teupu noun
Polynesiante ipu
1cup made out of a coconut shell
viñe teipua coconut shell
Li-ovei pe li-la tepulu li-lateli ne teipu me le-su nga buluko.Kauri resin can be stored in an empty coconut shell, and lit as a lamp.
2espdrinking cup, e.g. for drinking kava
Viñe teipu tete we teva, bwara kape votobo eo.kavaThree or four cups should be enough for you.
~teiu (i·)teju verb, intransitive
bow down, lean down
I-abu i-vio ponu ini i-ko i-teiu me i-tabe.As he fell on the ground, (his mother) bowed down to take him in her arms.
tekate tekate noun
Polynesiante kete
k.o. round basket woven in coconut leaves, used for storing or carrying food
Vongoro i-koie ne uña tekate i-avo boso iawo, ne kisin.The almonds were inside baskets above the fire, in the kitchen.
see lexical list atuie luro
tekau tekau noun, relational
Vaeakau-Taumakote kahuclothes, cloth
Ni-vene ne botu, tekau ene i-tawoe.As I climbed on the boat, my trousers got torn.
see lexical list atnamoloclothes
tekepu tekepu adjective
Vaeakau-Taumakote kefualbinoPPn*kefulight-coloured hair
emele tekepuan albino woman
Ini tekepu.He's albino.
tekilikili tekilikili noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote kilikilismall stones, pebbles
coral stones on the reef
seetouroreef flat
tekipa tekipa noun
fire gun
Ni-sali tekipa li-kovi.I shot at them but they dodged it.
tekume tekume noun
a traditional skirt, made out of bark, and worn by women for dance ceremonies
Da viñevi li-ativi dapa ñe tekume.The women girt themselves with a 'tekume' cloth.
tekumete1 tekumete noun
k.o. seashore tree, whose hard wood is used for several artifacts, incl. tekumete2Pemphis acidula.
tekumete2 tekumete noun
Polynesiante kumetewooden bowl
large wooden bowl for serving food
seetanowooden bowl for serving liquid
Tekupie tekupie Tukupie locative
Tikopia, an island located east of Vanikoro, home to a Polynesian population who has partly immigrated to Vanikoro
ne to ñe na ka Tekupiebetween here and Tikopia
Dapa li-le Tukupie, tev' iu re.They went to Tikopia, eastward.
dapa Tekupie noun
the people of Tikopia, the Tikopians
Dapa Tukupie li-koie li-te ne tanoe akapa Vanikoro ponu.The Tikopians have (immigrated and) settled on our land here on Vanikoro.
telakia telakia noun
Polynesiante lakiaBlack Noddy (Anous minutus)
White TernGygis alba.
telango telaŋo noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote laŋostick or roller for canoe
log rollers, used to move heavy objects (e.g. canoes)
seetovokowolever (for pushing canoe on rollers)
telau telau noun
‘food basket’: a basket hanging in the kitchen, keeping food
Telau i-avo boso iawo.The food basket is hanging above the fire.
see lexical list atuie luro
Food baskettelau
Telau, topola iote pe li-vei ñe uie luro. Li-la i-avo ne toplau, peini none we dapa gete.
“The ’food basket telau’ is a basket woven with coconut leaves. It is put to hang in the men's club, keeping food for the young men.”
tele tele noun
oil, extracted from certain plants, and cooked
tele peini lurococonut oil
tele peini vongorooil of Canarium almonds
telemoe telemoe telemwoe noun
Cf. moe ‘house’
walls of a house (moe ~ mwoe), tradit. made of plaited bamboo or large leaves
bali peini telemoe pole lying at the base of a house walling, plinth
Li-panade okoro awoiu li-si telemwoe peini mwoe.You split the bamboos, and then you make the wallings of your house.
telepakau telepakau noun
Polynesian*lapakauskilful, crafty
poss. classifierenaka
1culture, traditions of a specific place
telepakau akapaour culture
Teliki Makumoso Banie i-waivo idi mwaliko ñe telepakau, ñe maluo.The Elder God Banie instructed humans with culture and life.
Ponu telepakau tamwaliko pe noma; ka awoiu.sorceryThat's a bad tradition of times past; it's over now.
2esptraditional norms, conceived as rules and duties; customary law
Telepakau pe na, lek' iape etapu.In our custom, one's (female) cousin is to be highly respected.
Ka a-romo leka! Ka a-sube ñe telepakau!You caught sight of your cousin: you've infringed the customary rules.
seenudurolaw, principle
~teli (i·)teli verb, transitive
1put ‹s.th.› down
~la ~teli serial verb, transitive
take and putput ‹s.th.› down
Leka, kape u-la ngatene u-mini susuko tae. Kape u-la u-teli, ka ini ka i-la.As for your cross-cousin, you cannot give her anything directly. You just put it down, and she'll pick it up.
contracted to~lateli
2bury ‹s.o., s.th.›
Dapa pe li-abu dapa li-bu, kape le-lui dapa le-teli dapa ne tanoe.Those who were killed were later buried in the ground.
3henceplant ‹fruit, taro+›
li-teli balaweto plant pineapples
Li-tau sekele ponu awoiu, moro iote li-le li-teli avtebe.After burning their garden, the next day they went to plant taros.
I-iumu, pi-teli mataña (jebute).First of all, we planted the (taro) shoot.
Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.Cyrtosperma taros are planted in swamps.
derivative~teli uteleplant a stem → begin
4plantgrow ‹leaves+›
Jebute i-teli uie.The taros have grown leaves.
5send ‹message›
~teli mama phrasal verb
Lvn~leli mama
manput/send o.'s voicerequest official engagement (to a woman, ñe/se) from her family
Kape ne-teli mama ene ñ’ eo.I will ask to be engaged to you [lit. I shall put my voice for you].
U-teli mama ene se.Please arrange my engagement with her [lit. you send my voice for her].
synonym~vi nuduro
teliki teliki noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote alikichief, paramount chief
pluña telikidapa teliki
1chief, leader of a community
Uña teliki li-anu i-dai i-le i-le.The chiefs drank the kava around (in a circle).
menu emele ie teliki[child female of chief] the chief's daughter
Teliki iadapa i-vete ngapiene.The chief proclaimed the opening of the Festival.
Uña teliki li-lamini tanoe se dapa.The authorities granted them some ground.
seemwaliko pinedignitary
2figin heathen religionlord, master, god
Banie, pon Teliki iaidi pe li-maluo, iaidi pe li-bu.Banie was the god of the Living, but also the god of the Dead.
derivativeTeliki MakumosoSupreme Lord, God
Teliki Makumoso ˈteliki makuˈmoso proper noun
1elder chiefparamount chief, supreme chief
Uña teliki makumoso, ka uña teliki, ka dapa wopine peini kulumoe, ka dapa gete, ne-ko kape ne-viñi kiapa. Iote kape ne-viñi kaipa teliki na.O you supreme chiefs, you dignitaries, you leaders of our island; and you the youngsters too, I have something to tell you. Something I want to tell to all the dignitaries here.
2espSupreme Lord, God: name given to the ancient god Banie
Teliki iadapa pe li-maluo, ka Teliki Makumoso iadapa po li-bu.The living have their chiefs; the Dead have their own supreme chief, “Teliki Makumoso”.
Banie, the Supreme LordBanie, Teliki Makumoso
Basavono po kulumoe i-ta ñei, Teliki Makumoso li-ko “Banie”. Ka Teliki Makumoso Banie pon na, i-waivo idi. In’ na, Teliki Makumoso, ai’ akapa, i-waivo idi ñe telepakau, ñe piene; i-waivo idi ñe ngatene pe li-ajau: nga ebele ko i-waivo idi pe li-vo mwoe, i-waivo idi pe li-bo vilo, kuo, wele, ngaten’ abia pon na.
When our country emerged, our Supreme Lord was called “Banie”. This supreme god was the one who taught everything to humans. He's the one – our Supreme Lord, our father – he's the one who taught us our culture, our language, everything we do: thus he taught us how to build houses, how to create things with wood, how to cut canoes, how to make paddles – all those things…
~telini telini verb, transitive
+ nounturn into, transform into ‹s.th.›
Moe iape ka i-telini voko.His house has turned into stone.
~teli utele (i·)teli.utele phrasal verb
~teli ‘put down, plant’ + ‘tree base’
plant a (tree) basebegin, start (to do, me + Irr.)
Ni-teli utele buro.I began a song.
La-tabo la-teli utele i-le la-wo enga temaka.Alright, let's start again the list of placenames.
Morphology~teli utele is often contracted as ~tetele*, with the same meaning.
telupe telupe noun
Polynesiante lupePacific pigeon (Ducula pacifica)
1genpigeonColumbidae spp.
mwoe ie telupea pigeon’s nest
La-le lai-ago telupe?Shall we go pigeon-hunting?
Pe li-wete telupe, u-avi visone ka u-iui diro i-le i-wete ini.When you hunt pigeons, you bend your bow, and let the arrow fly and hit it.
2espWhite-throated PigeonColumba vitiensis.
telupe bale noun
breadfruit pigeonPacific Imperial PigeonDucula pacifica.
temabete temaᵐbete noun
semi-mat or simple mat: k.o. mat, smaller than the regular model awene, coarsely woven with one side of a coconut palm (bauluko)
Temabete me mawene, li-garei pe daviñevi li-te ene.Women are forbidden from sitting on mats or semi-mats.
📘 The size is about 50cm × 1m.
see lexical list atuie luro
temaka temaka noun
(?) Polynesian*makastone, rock
Pele iono i-tatawoe ne temaka ene, ka ere.Your fishnet is torn here, and there.
2esplocation on land, geographical spot
enga temakaplace names
Temaka etapu, temaka pe li-tamava ene.A sacred place is one where people carry out their worship.
Li-kila temaka pon li-ko “Moe ma Tadoe”.That place is called “Devils' Lair”.
Dapa le-ko le-romo temaka pe noma.archaeologistsThey want to see villages from the past.
casual synonymvono23
seekulumoeland, island
3sometearth, ground
Bai-te ra ra ra, ba-lengi temaka pe i-ekili.earthquakeWe were at home, when we suddenly felt the place tremble.
4subject of impersonal predicatesthe universe, insofar as it is subject to the diurnal cycle. Dummy subject for various predicates for weather or times of the day
Temaka mamote nedemo we ka tomoro?Is it still dark? or is it daylight already?
temama temama noun
Polynesiante mamalimpet, chiton
Spiny chitonAcanthopleura spinosa.
temamene temamene noun
1k.o. basket
see lexical list atuie luro
2hencebag, backpack, suitcase
Ni-mui temamene enone i-wene ne moe.I left behind my backpack in the house.
Ni-lateli ne temamene peini lusa ene.I put it away in my suitcase [the basket for my clothes]
temeki temeki noun
Sea anemoneStichodactylidae spp.
temena temena noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote momonafat, grease
temena peini lurococonut oil
temotu temotu noun
Small islets, temotu (photo: Vanuatu).
Polynesiante motu
islet, small island
Li-te li-wamu dapa li-te ne temotu ne Vilimoe ponu.Lapérouse sailorsThey went to hide in the islet of Filimoe over there.
contrasts withbasakulumoe(large) island
seekulumoeinhabited land
temounu temounu noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote mounu
Namuko i-ka i-e temounu mina kangele teuko enaka!The fish came and ate away the bait from my fish hook!
Temwo temwo Temuo placename
Temwo, one of the main villages of Vanikoro, located southeast of the main island Banie
ten’gale tenᵑgale noun
teno teno noun
Island lychee (Sapindaceae)Pometia pinnata.
tenubopu tenuᵐbopu tenbopu noun
pawpawCarica papaya.
tenubopu emele noun
Lvntenapolo neme
Tnmtenapolo mee
tenubopu mwalikote noun
Lvntenapolo ale
Tnmtenapolo anuka
tenuro tenuro noun
1thick fibres composing the husk of a coconut
Coconut-fibre ropetenuro
Tenuro pon, li-kai mina labaro li-tuku ne revo i-vagasi metele iune. Awoiu li-tabo li-loko li-koioi li-tate iwene ne ole me kokoro ne aeve. I-le i-le pon, basavono po kokoro pon, li-loko pon li-vei me ika nga tenuro. Li-ovei pe li-ejau ngatene abia ñei, ebele nga pele peini namuko, we taka pe li-koene ne aele idi.
To make a rope, you tear off the fibres of a coconut husk, and plunge them in the sea for a whole month. Then you collect them again, bring them ashore, and extend them on the sand so it dries in the sun. Once it's dry, it can be woven into a rope. You can then make several things with it, like a fishing-net, or sandals.
2rope, traditionally made by braiding together coconut fibres
Dapa noma vana li-apilo tenuro.People in the past used to make coconut-string ropes.
Kape li-odo tenuro me le-vo ñe nengele kuo korone.We'll look for a rope so we can attach firmly the elements of the canoe.
tengiro teŋiro noun
tears; the act of crying
Tengiro i-pu i-abu.His tears were running down.
Awoiu, menu ka i-re tengiro, ka i-ekeke.The child stopped crying [he released his crying], and laughed.
tepaipi tepajpi noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote paipiEngpipe
smoking pipe
tepakare tepakare noun
A Polynesian catamaran (tepakare).
1Polynesian catamaran: a double-hulled voyaging canoe
Toñaki ie Laperus ponu, ae, tepakare. Lovia tilu, ne?Lapérouse's ship, you know, it was a catamaran. With two sections, you see?
Da ne tepakare.They are twins.
tepakola tepakola noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote pakolagiant, ogre
giant, ogre
Pon tadoe? Pon tepakola? Kape i-abu idi?Is that a god? Is that a giant? Does he kill people?
tepanoko tepanoko noun
Tikopiante panoko
rockskipper, k.o. fishBlenniidae spp.
tepao tepao noun
(?) Polynesianpaostrike, hammer
1spear, harpoon
U-la tepao u-ago ñe namuko pon.You spear the fish with a harpoon.
2metal, iron
tepapa tepapa noun
Polynesiante papaplank, board
1genwooden board, plank
Li-avo tepapa ka li-apilo toñaki.They made planks (by splitting wood) to build a ship.
Mwoe iape, waiero peini vono i-somoli tae pe i-botongo ñe tepapa.His house was not destroyed by the tidal wave, because he had protected it with planks.
2espstomping boards. During ngapiene festivals, a blateno pole is erected in the middle of the village area (mane). Laid out in circle (~dai, ~dadai) around it, are a number of wooden boards half buried (~iu2) in the ground, on which dancers leap and stomp (~viaene, ~wate) during the celebrations, in a loud and joyful dance.
Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai awoiu ponu, li-iu. Li-iu tepapa i-dai awoiu, blateno ka li-toe li-kamai.First they dug up the holes for the boards in a circle, then they buried the stomping boards. Finally, they cut a wooden pole and brought it.
Li-wate tepapa, li-viane tepapa ponu; ka li-pinoe pon ta ka li-mako.They were hitting the boards, stomping on the boards: such was their dance.
The stomping boardstepapa
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele. Awoiu li-ae tanoe li-la tepapa li-botongo ñi. Awoiu idi li-mako ne pongo li-viane me aña ini.
‘To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle. Then you dig up the ground, and cover the hole with the board. Later, people will dance upon them, stomping for the noise it makes.’
kie tepapa noun
hole of boardhole buried in the ground, used as a resonator underneath the stomping board during the ngapiene dances
tepuke tepuke noun
A tepuke canoe.
Vaeakau-Taumakote pukebig traditional canoe for long sea voyagesPPn*pukebow and stern decking of a canoe
large sailing canoe used by the Polynesians for ocean travel, characterised by its decking and cabin
Tepuke ponu, kuo pine; moe aplaka pon, ne pongo kuo pon.The ‘tepuke’ ship is a large canoe; it has a small cabin, on top of the ship.
Li-ovei pe li-pwalau li-le Iura ne tepuke.They used to travel to (north) Vanuatu on their large canoes.
Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na? Na toñaki we tepuke?Hey, people! What sort of ship is that? Is it a European ship, or a Polynesian sailing canoe?
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
tepulu tepulu noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote puluglue, gumPOc*ᵐbulut
resin, gum ‹of tree›: sticky stuff that comes out of a tree, after it has solidified
contrasts withabwa1sap
Kauri resintepulu
Basavono po li-toe oie dero, abwa i-ke mina. I-ka ra ra i-beiu ka li-kila li-ko “tepulu peini dero”. Li-ovei pe li-la tepulu li-lateli ne teipu me le-su nga buluko.
If you cut at the trunk of a kauri tree, the sap comes out; when it hardens, we call it tepulu, “kauri resin”. Kauri resin can be stored in an empty coconut shell, and lit as a lamp.
tepungo tepuŋo noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote pungasmooth, big, round coral stone
stony coral, coral rock, madreporeScleractinia spp.
Tepungo pon voko wopine li-karau ne mwoko ka uña viko me komudo li-vio ene.Coral rocks are large boulders that grow on the reef bed, and that's where shells and clamshells grow.
Kanamuko me komudo i-lakau tepungo.Clamshells adhere to the coral rock.
tepwoe tepʷoe noun
Lvnmiwe vegore
Tnmbaloe vagora
Vaeakau-Taumakotupoedried breadfruit, cut in small piecesPPn*poʔoi
k.o. traditional biscuit made with breadfruit (bale)
Tepoe, pi-ejau peini melevele.We prepare 'tepoe' biscuits in case of a disaster.
tepworo tepʷoro teporo adjective
flat, of flat shape
vongoro pe tepworoa flat almond
I-romo voko tilu. Iote wabulubu, iote teporo.He saw two stones: one round, one flat.
contrasts withwabuluburound
tero tero noun
1naturalvine, liana
li-katei teropull a vine (in the bush)
Li-la tero li-dai ñe uie luro.They take a liana and wrap it with coconut leaves.
2manmaderope, string; esp. modern sort of rope
U-la lusa eo i-avo ne tero.Hang your shirt on the string.
tetake tetake teta-ke take locative
Lvnleve mwaroa
~ke2A3 ‘go out, go seawards’
geocentric directionaloutsideoutside, seen from the interior of the island; hence down towards the shore; seawards
Le-le tetake ne touro l-oma!Let's walk to the shore and find some seafood.
Li-le li-vagas’ ere, tetake n’ adie ngamuli.They went all the way to that point over there – out there towards the ocean.
Ngiro Teulu Laki i-aka i-ka tetake ne.from the southern shore of VanikoroThe Teulu Laki (southerly) wind blows from the ocean, this way.
seeonesand, beach
contrasts withtetakoieinland
tetaki tetaki noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote taikitrap for animals
small wicker basket used as a bottle trap, plunged (~re2) in a river to catch prawns or shrimps (konge)
Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.Let's plunge some traps and catch some small river shrimps
tetakoie tetakoje teta-koie takoie locative
Lvnleve ngate
~koieA3 ‘go inland’
1geocentric directionalinsideinland, seen from the shore; uphill
Sekele iaba ene vitoko ne, takoie ne.Our garden is here, uphill this way.
Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi takoie.They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.
2seen from the seatowards the coast, towards the island
Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.
Li-koie takoie ne touro ponu, dapa wopine kula li-ke li-le.While they were walking up towards the shore, some of the [island's] chiefs walked down towards them.
tetaula tetaula noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote taura
📘 The anchor is attached to a rope or chain (iula). The term iula can also refer, metonymically, to the anchor itself.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
tetavene tetavene locative
teta- + ~vene
up, on the upper side; uphill
Li-le li-te tetavene pon, ne waluko ero.They went to stay uphill over there, along the river.
tetawene tetawene noun
Polynesian*tataudesign, tatoo
1tattoo, on o.'s body
tetawene ie daviñeviwomen's tattoos
derivative~si tetawenetattoo
2customary pattern, drawn or painted upon a surface; e.g. frieze-like decorations on the walls of a sacred house (toplau)
Mata i-katau Toplau na ! Mata i-katau tetawene !Look at the sacred house! Look at the (drawn) patterns!
Tetawene kape le-si nga ne –demonstrationThe patterns were drawn like this –
Tetawene peini Toplau mwa gete, iote enga ini “ava saba”.Among the customary patterns found on the Men's House, one is called “wings of the frigatebird”.
tetawene peini nuduro noun
pattern of the centipedek.o. customary pattern with lines and triangles, reminiscent of the shape of a centipede
Tetawo tetawo Tawo locative
(?) tev’ tawo ‘northwest’
ancient village located in the south of Banie, formerly the main village of the Tanema language community
Noma, dapa Lovono li-ovei pe li-via samame dapa Tawo.The Lovono tribe used to wage war against the Tetawo tribe.
Basavono ponu, mamote kulumoe Tetawo mate idi abia li-te ene.At that time, the village of Tetawo was still inhabited.
Hist.The area has now been taken over by Polynesian settlers from Tikopia.
piene adapa Tetawo noun
Tnmpuiene adato pe Tetawo
the language of Tetawo peopleTanema language, formerly spoken in the south of Banie island
📘 The language of Tanema only had a single speaker in 2012.
tete1 tete numeral
Viñe teupu tete we teva, bwara kape votobo eo.Three of four cups, that may be enough for you.
E, dap' tete! Pi-ka vele?Hey, you three! Where are you coming from?
see lexical list attivi
tete2 noun
Titan triggerfishBalistoides viridescens.
~tetele (i·)tetele
Averb, intransitive
begin, start
Wako, u-tetele!Alright, start!
Ka la-tetele na Pakare.They started (their journey) in Pakare.
Kata kape le-tetele kape le-pinoe pon ta.They were about to start dancing.
Etym.Contraction of ~teli utele, lit. ‘plant a base’.
Bverb, transitive
start ‹s.th.›
I-tetele buro.He started a song.
~te teve (i·)te teve verb, oblique
1literals.o.be withlive with ‹s.th., s.o.›
Noma, po apali i-maili i-ven' i-ka, i-te tev' ai' iape me et' iape.In the old days, when a child grew up, he would stay with his parents.
2espwomanbe married with ‹a man›; have ‹s.o.› as partner or spouse
Ka i-te te' mwaliko, we mamote?[Is she living with a man] Has she got a man in her life, or not yet?
contrasts with~kila22marry ‹a woman›
Tetevo tetevo locative
1Utupua island, close to Vanikoro
La-vesu bavede i-le. I-le, la-koie Tetevo.They hoisted the sail and travelled; travelled towards (the island of) Utupua.
Tetevo, piene adapa tete: iote piene adapa Asubuo, iote Nebao, iote Tanibili.Utupua has three languages: one is Asubuo, one Nebao, one Tanibili.
2espan area on that island of Utupua, where the Tanibili language is spoken
piene adapa Tetevo[the language of the Tetevo area] Tanibili language
teuko teuko noun
Polynesiante ukafishing line
fishing line; generic name for the equipment used in angling for fish
Le-la teuko ne jokoro me le-katei ñe namuko.Let's take our bamboo fishing rod, and go angling for fish.
derivativeiula teukofishing string
derivativekangele teukofishhook
see lexical list at~omato fish
~ioi teuko phrasal verb
throw the fishing-linego fishing, go angling
Kape ne-ioi teuko ko.But first let me go fishing.
teulao teulao noun
womanflirt, promiscuous woman
contrasts withuñebe(male) flirt
Teulu teulu locative
Vaeakau-Taumakote Uluwind from southwest
Southerly wind, blowing between Tonga and Laki
buro bula Teuluthe song of the South wind
see lexical list atngiro
teulungo teuluŋo noun
A headrest from Santa Cruz island (teulungo pe Niteni).
Vaeakau-Taumakote ulungaheadrest, pillow
1headrest: highly valued wooden artifact used for resting o.'s head while sleeping
Teulungo ie ai’ adapa li-ovei pe li-la nga ai’ adapa i-mini aña dapa.upon the father's deathThe headrest of their father, they can inherit it only if their father has performed the transmission ritual towards them.
2by extpillow
teune teune noun
PPn*te fune
skin disease: scabies, itch, ringwormTinea |fx{spp}.
Teune va i-ememe.Scabies is itchy.
teva teva numeral
kwa teva tamana tuaforty eight
Viñe teipu tete we teva, bwara kape votobo eo.Three or four cups of kava should be enough for you.
see lexical list attivi
tevalvalo tevalvalo noun
Polynesiante valovaloa tree, Premna sp.PPn*walowalo
k.o. tree (Verbenaceae)Premna spp.
teve1 teve tev‘ preposition
1foll. by Directionaltowards ‹such and such direction›
Apali pon ka i-vilu i-le tev' iu re!That child ran away in that (upward) direction!
2beside, by ‹a location›
Mwaliko iape i-romo emel' iape i-wene teve iawo.The man saw his wife lying by the fire.
3by ‹s.o.›, with ‹s.o.›
Laperus i-ka tev' kiapa ne kulumoe iakapa Vanikoro.Lapérouse came among us, in our island of Vanikoro.
derivative~te tevelive with
4(take+) from ‹s.o.›
Awa ene ni-ko ne-sava teve teliki.I want to buy it from the chief.
Li-le li-wamabu teve ai' iape me ete iape.They went to ask (permission) from their parents.
Iepiene pon na, ni-lengi tev’ et’ one.This story, I heard it from my mother.
Bwara le-ko le-watebo iepiene teve uña dapa wopine.We should rather enquire about those traditional stories from the elders.
5after some stative predicatesto ‹s.o.›, for ‹s.o.›
vitoko teve eneclose to me
Nganae li-ko li-ajau, na i-wene moli teve dapa.Everything they wanted to do ended up being easy to them.
Ni-romo viko i-aiae teve ene.I realise that money is a problem for me.
Tev’ eo!predicativeIt's up to you!
contrasts withseto, Dative
6rare(other) than ‹s.o.›
Tae, ini tae. Iote teve.No, it's not her. It's someone else. [lit. another one from her]
7after existential verbbe with ‹s.o.›, equiv. of Eng. ‘have’
Monone adapa kape i-wene teve kia na.Their trunk will remain with you and me.
A-rom, na vilo engaiote! Vilo pon i-vio teve kiapa tae.Look at this strange plant! [lit. That plant doesn't exist with us.] We don't have it (in our island).
~wene teve verb, oblique
exist tobelong to ‹s.o.›; equiv. of Eng. ‘have’
Sitoa i-wene tev' ai' one.[a store existed with my father] My father had a business.
Nganae awa dapa i-viaene, na, i-wen' teve dapa.ParadiseWhatever they want, they have it.
~teve2 (i·)teve verb, intransitive
s.th.melt, decompose
Kunini ka i-teve!Your tablet is melting!
teveliko teveliko noun
1tritonCharonia tritonis.
2henceconch shell, traditionally used as a trumpet, esp. when sending out public signals or calling out to people
Ni-si teveliko.I'm blowing in the conch.
Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.
tevie tevie noun
1often with ne1 prepositionside of ‹s.th.›
Mata ene tevie i-meli.My eye is hurting on one side.
2(in) the vicinity of
Sekele peini jebute upa i-wene ne tevie.Our taro garden is located close to here [lit. on the side]
3(on) the other side of
ne tevie kulumoethe other side of the world
4topic, issue; regard
derivativetevie teveabout
tevie… tevie… adverb
side… side…one side, the other side; hence partly X, partly Y
Jokoro pon, tevie i-ko, tevie li-botongo.On bamboo drums, one side is open, the other side is shut.
Dapa li-somoli tevie, ka tevie i-le.They destroyed part (of the ship), but another part went safe.
Dapa na ngatene nga tevie mwaliko, tevie nga li-romo nga tadoe.Tamate masksThese are special creatures, half man, half spirit.
tevie teve tevie teve tevie tev‘ noun
Tnmlavele ao
1(on) the side towardsindicates a direction in space
Ne moe puo re? – Tae, ne tevie tev' iu i-ka m'jaka.In this house down there? – No; a bit further up [lit. on the side towards up a little].
2figakin to, closer to ‹a certain type›; Cf. Eng. “on the X side”
Dapa tevie teve tadoe, we?GoblinsThey are rather on the supernatural (rather than human) side, right?
3hencecommused with or without prep. neabout ‹a certain subject›
Kia la-vete piene tevie tev' tadoe.Let's talk about spirits.
teviri tefiri noun
tevie ‘side’ + viri ‘rear’
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
tev’ iu teviu locative
Lvnleve ngau
1upper sideup, above
Uña ngaten' enaka i-wene tev' iu re.My stuff (bags+) is up over there.
3geocentric meaningupwindon the southeast side; south or east
Kulumoe Iura, kulumoe i-wene tev’ iu.The islands of (north) Vanuatu are located southeast [of Vanikoro].
Ngiro Tangake i-aka i-abu i-kamai tev' iu ne.The Tangake wind blows down from the east.
Apali pon ka i-vilu i-le tev' iu re!That child ran away in that (upward) direction!
teviumu teviumu noun
tevie ‘side’ + ~iumu ‘come first’
Kula pe li-vio ne teviri li-ioi; ka kula i-vio i-katei ne teviumu.dragging a canoe on landThose who are standing by the stern, they will push; the others stand at the prow, and pull.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
tev’ tawo teftawo locative
Lvnleve lenu
1lower sidedown, below
Toplau tilu. Ie da viñevi tev’ tawo, ka ie da penuo tev’ iu.There are two ritual houses. The one for women is located down, the one for men is up.
contrasts withtev’ iu
2geocentric meaningon the northwest side; north or west
Ngiro Tokolau i-aka i-ka tev' tawo ne.The Tokolau wind blows from the west.
~te wako verb, intransitive
1stay wellbe well, be healthy
Ni-vodo ni-ko eo ka uña damiliko iono pi-te wako.I hope that you and your children are well.
2live in peace
Dapa abia ne marama na awa dapa i-viane le-te wako.Everybody in this world just wants to live in peace.
seebasavono wakopeace
tiaume tjaume tiame noun
“canoe notch”: notch carved on each side of a canoe hull, meant to attach a rope when dragging (~katei, ~iui) the canoe on land towards the sea
Li-toe kuo wako, li-ajau tiame wako, i-viñi dapa gete iape i-ko “Wako le-le le-katei.”Once they had carved the canoe, once they had carved the notches, he told his youngsters: “Alright, let's drag it now!”
Kape le-ngago moboro se tiaume peini kuo.We fasten a rope to the hooks of the canoe.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
tiave tiave noun
flying-fishExocoetus spp.
tiawo tjawo noun
tibi tiᵐbi numeral
kwa-tilu tamana totibitwenty-seven
see lexical list attivi
tidi tiⁿdi numeral
see lexical list attivi
tieli ʧeli noun, kinship
POc*taciyounger same-sex sibling
1stili' one2stilio3stieli
sibling, of either sex: irregular form of tilio* for 3sg (‘his/her sibling’) and when followed by a noun (‘sibling of X’)
Tilio, we tieli?anaphoric 3s possessorIs he your brother, or his/her brother?
tieli mwalkote[his/her sibling male] his/her brother
tieli emele[his/her sibling female] his/her sister
tieli eteNP possessoryour mother's sibling
tieli StanleyStanley's sibling
Emele iote i-ve ini, ka emele iote i-ve ene, da tieli.reciprocal predicateThe woman who gave birth to him, and the one who gave birth to me, they were sisters.
~tigiri (i·)tiᵑgiri verb, oblique
splash, spatter (‹s.o., s.th.›, se)
U-tigiri se ene etapu!Stop splashing at me!
Revo i-tigiri se ene.The waves were spattering me.
tili tili numeral
bwogo tilifive days
see lexical list attivi
tilio tilio noun, kinship
Lvnalu / mwene
Tnme, mwe(ne)
1stili' one2stilio3stieli*3ptil’ iapetili’ adapa
1symmetrical termego male or femalesibling of either sex (Z, B)
tili' one emele[my female sibling] my sister
tili' one mwalkote[my male sibling] my brother
Tilio emele pe i-katau eo?Is this your younger sister?
Tili' one pine, moe iape na ta.My big brother, here is his house.
MorphologyThe final vowel /o/ in tilio is only ever heard with a 2sg possessor; with all other persons, the noun is elided to tili’. The 3sg form has an irregular variant tieli [ʧeli].
2classificatory siblingparallel cousin of either sex (MZC, FBC)
Tili' one emele pe tieli et' one i-ve, kape ne-kila ini metae, pe keba basa iune.My female cousin, born of my mother's sister, I am not allowed to marry her: we belong to the same moiety.
AnthropologyParallel cousins cannot marry together, unlike cross-cousins (leka).
3symmetrical termgreat-grandparent or great-grandchild
tilu tilu numeral
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.It is the same word, but with two distinct meanings.
see lexical list attivi
tilu-tae tilutae tiltae numeral
tilu + tae
lacking twoeight
kwa-tilu tamana tilu-taetwenty-eight
ne metele tilu-tae[in the eighth month] in August
Morphology“Eight” can be expressed as a single word (tua) or as a subtractive numeral tilu-tae, lit. ‘[ten] minus two’.
see lexical list attivi
Tinakula tinakula placename
Tinakula, an island of Temotu province known for its volcano
tinakula noun
tinakula Gawathe volcano of Gaua (in Vanuatu)
tivi tivi noun
POc*picanhow many
tivi how many
iuneA one
tilu two
tete1 three
teva four
tili five
tuo six
tibi seven
tua ; tilu-tae eight
tidi ; iune-tae nine
uluko ; sangaulu ten
uluko tamana iune eleven
tamana linker for units
kwa-tilu twenty
kwate thirty
kwa-teva tamana tua forty eight
rea hundred
imuo thousand
1how many?
Ebieve iono tivi? – Uluko tamana teva.[lit. How many are your years?] How old are you? – Fourteen.
Aeve ka tivi na? – Aeve ka tili.[lit. How many suns?] What time is it now? – It's five o'clock.
2what price? how much?
Viko peini kape tivi?Future tenseHow much will it cost? [its money will (be) how much?]
Buka ono po tivi?Your notebook, how much (did it cost)?
to1 to noun
sugarcaneSaccharum edule.
li-nge tochew sugarcane
Ne-bo to ne-min' eo.I'm cutting some sugarcane for you.
to2 to noun, relational
1spatialmiddle; space between two spots
Li-vo aero i-dai, me kape le-mako ne to.They erected a fence around (the village area), for us to dance in the middle.
ne to preposition
between (X ka Y)
ne to Temwo ka Tetawbetween Temwo and Tetawo
ne to ñe na ka Tekupiebetween here and Tikopia
ne to ebievein the middle of the year
Li-pinoe li-pinoe, ra ra ra ra ra ra – i-le to bwogo.They danced on and on and on – until the middle of the night.
to moro noun
middle daymidday
main entrytomoro
~to3 (i·)to verb, oblique
Poling the boat (li-to ñe kuo).
+obliquepole a boat on shallow sea
I-to ñe kuo iape.He's poling his boat.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
~to4 (i·)to verb, intransitive
vulgpenis, isebe erect
Ise ene i-to!I have a boner!
~tobo (i·)toᵐbo
Averb, intransitive
poke out, break through, in the form of a longish object
Dapa li-romo vilisao ka i-tobo i-ke – li-romo nga luro.They suddenly saw a tornado break through the clouds – it was [long and thin] like a coconut tree.
Bverb, transitive
1press ‹s.th., s.o.› with finger or longish object (stick+); poke ‹s.th., s.o.›
U-tobo ma ene etapu!Stop poking my arm!
see~woipoke, stick in
2pierce a hole in ‹s.th.›
I-tobo tanoe pon i-vene.It made a hole from below the ground, and came out of it.
Ka li-tobo ñe tamate pe ka mata mwaliko i-ke me i-romo.They've made holes in the Tamate masks, so that (the dancer) can see through.
3esphook ‹bait› on fish hook
Kape le-tobo ñe kangele teuko ono me le-mede ñe namuko.We'll hook it on your hook, to attract fish.
Cverb, oblique
wave or raise o.'s finger (at s.th., ñe)
1rareuse o.'s finger to measure the length (of s.th., ñe); hence measure
Ni-tobo ñe mataruene.[lit. I'm poking at the door] I'm measuring the door (using my fingers).
2figindicate, signal (s.th., ñe)
Le-go dapa: pon li-tobo ñi, li-ko pon basavono peini pe li-pei idi.They gird themselves: that way, they signal it's a day of rejoicing.
see~nabemark, define
~tobo ñei (i·)toᵐbo ɲei ~tobo ñe verb, intransitive
(?) ~toboC2 ‘signal’ + ñei ‘at it’
restrain o.s., remain in the limits of decency
Dapa kula li-wablei piene, ia li-tobo ñe, pe dapa ie mwaliko po awa dapa i-su.funeral ceremoniesSome people may make jokes, as long as they restrain themselves, with respect to the family who are in mourning.
toe1 toe noun
k.o. treeExcoecaria agallocha.
~toe2 (i·)toe
Averb, transitive
1cut ‹wood+›, chop, with a knife or axe
Li-toe dero i-abu.They cut down the cauri tree.
Dapa kula ka li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro.Some men went to cut firewood in the bush.
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it (~bo) in the shape of a semi-circle.
li-toe selacut the umbilical chord
2harvest ‹bananas› by chopping a bunch off the tree
Li-toe udocut some bananas
see lexical list at~biharvest
3make ‹s.th.› out of wood
I-toe kuo iape.He cut himself a canoe.
Awoiu kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.Then you make the rail (for the canoe) as well as the smaller pegs.
Bverb, intransitive
rarechop at s.th. (ñe); destroy
I-toe ñe utele temotu tilu pon!He destroyed the two islets. [lit. he chopped at the islets, by throwing stones]
tokape tokape noun
Blue-lined snapperLutjanus kasmira.
Tokolau tokolau locative
Westerly wind, blowing between Palapu and Vakasiu
Ngiro Tokolau i-aka i-ka tev' tawo ne.The Tokolau wind blows from the west.
see lexical list atngiro
Tokolau Vakasiu locative
Southwesterly wind
tokoli noun
1raised wooden platform: elevated passage, bridge
Tokoli i-dobuo pe tebo, ka i-mu tamwase.lying trunk used as bridgeThe bridge is wet due to the rain, it's very slippery.
2espraised floor platform in a stilt house
iutego kuledi peini tokolishorter stilts for the floor structure
wavilo / watogobe peini tokolitie-beams supporting the floor structure
pwa tokoli empty space under a house
📘 The platform supports a floor of wooden slats (tapaia buioe).
Tokoloutu tokoloutu locative
Vaeakau-Taumakote Tokelau Tu
Northeasterly wind, blowing between Palapu and Nomianu
see lexical list atngiro
tololoa tololoa noun
Polynesiante toloaduck
Australian White-eyed DuckAythya australis.
tolosai tolosai noun
Vanikoro men wearing loincloths (tolosai), 1836
a traditional loincloth made out of bark, and worn (~go) by men for dance ceremonies
Dapenuo li-go dapa ñe tolosai; da viñevi li-ativi dapa ñe tekume.The men girt themselves in loincloths, the women in skirts.
toloto toloto noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote lotolake
lake, pool, lagoon
derivativeabwa nga tolototurquoise colour
~tomoe (i·)tomoe ~tomwoe verb, intransitive
disappear, vanish
Metele ka i-tomoe.The moon has disappeared (it is no longer visible).
Li-ovei pe li-tomoe, li-ovei pe li-tabo li-ka, nga ponu.They know how to disappear, how to appear again, that sort of thing.
Viko iadapa katae ka i-tomoe.Their treasure had disappeared.
~tomoli (i·)tomoli verb, intransitive
lie, say lies
I-ko “A-tomoli ko!” I-ko “Tae!”“You're lying,” he said; “No!” she replied.
L-ajau piene pe li-tomoli ñe tanoe.They made up a story to deceive people about land ownership.
antonym~takotell the truth
tomona tomona tomwona noun
Vaeakau-Taumakote monapudding
k.o. pudding, mixing taro (jebute) with coconut oil (tele)
uña iunubo tomonaportions of pudding
tomwona pe li-kila idia special pudding for wedding
tomoro tomoro noun
to2 ‘middle’ + moro1 ‘day’
Tomoro wako!greetingGood day! (around midday)
synonymtomoro wakomidday
2gendaylight, day
Temaka mamote nedemo we ka tomoro?perfect aspect ka2Is it still dark? or is it daylight already?
Li-mako li-mako, nedemo, tomoro, nedemo, tomoro…They danced on and on, during the night, during the day, the night, the day…
tomoro wako noun
well in the daymidday
Nanana ne tomoro wako ni-romo apali iote i-labu.Today at midday, I saw a child holding it.
adie tomoro wakoafternoon
~tomwoe verb, intransitive
main entry~tomoe
tone1 tone noun
1canoe pole: a long and solid rod used to pole (~to3) a canoe
tone, pe li-to ñe kuoa pole for poling the boat
seejokorobamboo rod
2hook, esp. hook in the kitchen for hanging food
Uña udo pe i-ako, li-lui i-avo ne tone.The ripe bananas had been put to hang from the hook.
tone2 tone noun
cost, price (of, peini)
Buka ono po, tone peini tivi?Your notebook, how much was its price?
Tone peini emele po tivi? – Savene tilu.How much should I pay for this woman? – Two money mats (savene).
tonea tonea noun
1Spotted Red PouletEtelis carbunculus.
2Longtail Red PouletEtelis coruscans.
Tonga toŋa locative
Vaeakau-Taumakote Tonga
trade winds: Southeasterly wind, blowing between Tangake and Teulu
see lexical list atngiro
tonge toŋe noun
sheath: a container or bag, long and high, used to carry around certain things
Tonge iote pine pon, savene i-koie.Inside that long basket was a bride doily.
Tabuluburi, tonge iote pine pe li-loko puro i-koie ene.A quiver is a long sheath where you can insert your arrows.
tongo toŋo noun
plantshoot, sucker
U-la tongo jebute na, me u-kamai me la-lui me la-iu.Take this taro shoot, and go bury it in the ground.
tongobe toŋoᵐbe noun
mangrove treeRhizophora spp.
Vilo peini revo ponu, enga ini tongobe.That seashore tree is called mangrove.
ka tongobe noun
Lvnka lengore
? of mangrovemangrove area, mangrove forest
Besungale i-te ne ka togobe, ne utele boke, ne bonge.mythologyBesungale lives in the mangrove, or inside banyans, or in caves.
tongolukilo toŋolukilo noun
1“custom leaves”: plants endowed with a special power, whether magic or medicinal
Jeboro ini tongolukilo iote.Wild basil is (used as) a medicinal plant.
Tongolukilo ponu wako peini basa idi i-meli.This medicinal plant is useful against headaches.
Mwaliko pon i-labu tongolukilo pe i-ejau ñe idi.That man knows how to perform magic for people. [lit. he holds medicinal leaves…]
Taluaito i-la tongolukilo i-mini men' one.The doctor gave some medicine to my child.
toñaki toɲaki noun
The two frigates of Lapérouse (toñaki ie Laperusi)
large ship, esp. Western sailing ship
Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na? Na toñaki we tepuke?Hey, people! What sort of ship is that? Is it a European ship, or a Polynesian sailing canoe?
piene peini toñaki ie Laperusthe story of Lapérouse's ship
Li-apilo toñaki awoiu, bara i-vagas’ metele tuo nga ponu.The building of the ship must have taken about six months.
Vilisao i-ka i-arevo toñaki pon kula tilu na.The tornado split the ship into two halves.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
toplau toplau topulau noun
Lvnmwagore, mwoe gore
Tnmnalama agora
1club house reserved to men, esp. initiated men
Moe uña dapa gete, enga ini Moe Toplau.The house of young men is called the Toplau house.
Teliki, samame dap' wopine, dapa gete, ne toplau; da viñevi, ne mwoe.The chief, together with elders and young boys, can go in the men’s club; but women stay in their houses.
derivativeToplau mwa getehouse for initiations
2hencemale initiations
Ai' iape kape i-la men' iape i-koioi ne Toplau.The father would introduce his son into the Men's House.
3by extritual house, reserved to a certain group of people
toplau ie daviñevia special house for women
Toplau ie daviñevi locative
ritual house for womenname of a mountain on Banie, located between Mt Popokia and the village of Lovoko
Ini i-ka ne basa aplaka pon, po li-ko “Toplau ie da viñevi” pon.He arrived at the small mountain known as “Women's house”.
Toplau mwa gete toplau mʷaᵑgete noun
toplau ‘club house’ + ma2B ‘(home) to’ + gete ‘youngster’
a men's club house (toplau) reserved to younger men (dapa gete) for their initiations
Ni-ko ne-wasi kaipa ñe Toplau mwa gete na.I wanted to tell you about the Men's Initiation house.
Ba-romo Toplau mwa gete pe i-ka mina tanoe pon, i-vio.myth of Toplau mwa geteWe saw the Men's initiation house come out of the ground, and stand in front of us.
topola topola noun
Polynesiante poraplaited coconut leaves
k.o. basket for carrying food
Ni-wo topola 'none ne die 'ne.I'm carrying my bag on my back (hanging on my forehead).
see lexical list atuie luro
~totoe (i·)totoe verb, transitive
Redup. ~toe2 ‘cut, chop’
chop, cut ‹s.th.› in many pieces
I-totoe jebute iape.He cut his taro in small pieces.
Kava li-totoe, kara i-koie samame.You chop kava to small pieces, including the roots.
totokale totokale
Anoun, relational
1picture, photo, representation of ‹s.o., s.th.›
Ene totokale menu one.This is a photo of my kid.
Synt.The possessor encoded with the direct (inalienable) pronoun is the person represented on the photo.
2figlikeness, resemblance to ‹s.o.›
I-la totokale ai' iape.[he's taken the likeness of his father] He looks like his father!
photo, picture (considered as an object in itself); somet. video, TV
Ene ni-rom ne totokale.I saw it on a photo / on TV.
Synt.The possessor encoded with the ordinary (alienable) marker enone is the owner of the photo, not its object.
~totoñe (i·)totoɲe verb, transitive
grate, sand ‹s.th.›
Ka i-wene peini u-totoñe via kome, via wele, tekumete, nga pon.The stingray sander (bele voro) can be used for sanding axe handles, paddles, wooden dishes, and so on.
see~ia3rub, file
~toulo (i·)toulo verb, transitive
hang ‹s.th.›, hook up
Li-toulo i-avo, li-toulo ne toñaki apilaka.anchorThey hooked it up upon a small boat.
touro touro noun
(?) Vaeakau-Taumakote ululuouter edge of reef where waves break
reef shore, seashore
Le-le ne touro li-odo aero?Shall we go to the reef shore and look for seashells?
Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro.They put up taboo signs on the shore.
tove tove noun
panax (Araliaceae)Polyscias scutellaria.
~tovi (i·)tovi verb, intransitive
meteorappear in the sky, come out
Metele ka i-tovi.The moon has come out.
tovokowo tovokowo tevokowo noun
lever: a long, wooden crowbar used to push heavy objects (e.g. a canoe) on log rollers
Dapa li-ioi tovokowo ene: kuo pine ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.As they pushed the lever, the large ship slid down all the way.
seetelangolog roller
tua tua numeral
Ai' one ka i-bu, ebieve tua ka i-da.My father died eight years ago.
see lexical list attivi
~tuku (i·)tuku
Averb, transitive
1lower ‹s.th., s.o.› using a rope
Li-tuku temamene i-abu.They lowered the basket down (with a rope).
2sink ‹s.th., s.o.›: throw it out to sea (revo, motono) so it sinks
U-la kuli re pe i-bu, u-tuku ne motono.Take that dead dog, and get rid of it in the ocean.
Mwaliko pon, li-tuku ini i-abu ne revo.That man was pushed and sunk in the sea.
see~laiuithrow away
Bverb, reflexive
let oneself go down
I-le i-le i-le i-le ponu, ini i-tuku in’ i-abu.He let himself go down (along the rope).
Jebute i-karau i-vene awoiu, i-tuku ini i-abu.When your taro has finished growing up, it will bend itself down.
tuo tuo numeral
metele tuosix months
I-la aele wa-tuo.He took six steps.
see lexical list attivi