k’ Tense Aspect Mood marker
Perfect aspect
main entryka ②
ka1 ka coordinator
Lvnga
Tnmmo
1and. Coordinator between noun phrases
U-toe dekele namuko, ava ka wabasa mina.You cut off the fish's tail, side fins and head.
viabasa ini ka noma ini ka mata iniher hair, her face, her eyes
Uña teliki makumoso, ka uña teliki, ka dapa wopine peini kulumoe, ka dapa gete, ne-ko kape ne-viñi kiapa.O you supreme chiefs, you dignitaries, you leaders of our island; and you the youngsters too, I have something to tell you.
Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.I measured the bamboo rod to be one fathom and a half.
Li-aneve lema mwoe, ka maro.They sweep inside the house, and outside too.
ne to ñe na ka Tekupiebetween here and Tikopia
synonymme ①
2and. Coordinator between clauses
Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.
Li-mabui li-ae tanoe, wako ka li-lateli teve.They quietly dug a hole in the ground, and put (the treasure) there.
contrasts withia ②but
3so: expresses logical consequence
Tokoli i-dobuo pe tebo, ka i-mu tamwase.The bridge is wet due to the rain, so it's very slippery.
Dapa li-le ne ene tae, ka ene ni-aptei ñe lek’ one.They didn't believe me, so I swore on my cousin's life.
ka2 ka Tense Aspect Mood marker
Lvnga
Tnmmo
Grammar
1+Realis V or predicatemarker of Perfect aspect: describes a current situation by reference to a previous event
Kulevelu ka i-ve waluluo tete.The fowl has laid three eggs.
Ka a-kila emele?Are you married already?
Ka ni-koie.I'm inside already.
Mamote i-maluo, we tae? – Tae, ka i-bu.Is she still alive? – No, she's already passed away.
Ngiro ka i-lubi.The wind has turned.
Revo ka i-koie, we ka i-ma?Is it high tide or low tide?
O io, ka ni-tabo ni-vodo!Oh yes, I remember now!
Ai' one ka i-bu, ebieve tua ka i-da.My father died eight years ago. [lit. he has died, eight years have passed]
teliki iakapa na pe ka i-re kiapa nain relative clauseour leader who has left us today
Jebute ka moso.adjective predicateThe taros are ripe.
Le-te rema le-ko none ka moioe.Perfect in the futureLet's wait for the food to cook.
Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko.adjective predicateOur roofing has been damaged. [lit. has gone bad]
Ka bwogo.noun predicateIt's night now.
Basavono na toñaki ka moko.noun predicateToday the ship has turned into coral reef.
Kiapa dapa Frans ka menuko.noun predicateWe and the French, we are friends.
Aeve ka tili.numeral predicate[hours are (already) five] It's five o'clock now.
MorphologyA stronger, stressed variant of ka is kata ka (see katae ka).
derivativeka… taenot any more
2+Irrealis Vprospective aspect, marking an action as imminent
Ka ne-koie.I'm coming in (in a second).
3esp+Irrealis V, 2nd personpolite imperative
Ne ngogoro uña menuko abia, ka pe-romo p-ajau!There are many animals in the woods, be careful!
Ka u-te!greetingGood bye! [lit. you stay!]
~ka3 (i·)ka
Lvn~ma, ~mage
Tnm~loma
Averb, intransitive
1come, towards speaker or deictic centre
U-ka ko!Come here!
A-ka a-kae? – Ni-katau anoko ni-ka.How did you come? – I just followed the road. (I walked)
I-ka i-koie ne moe ka i-romo emel’ iape i-wene teve iawo.character's point of viewHe came in the house and he saw his wife by the fire.
Ba-ka ba-rom ngatene pon na!serial verbCome look at that thing here!
contrasts with~lego
see~kamaibring
2foll. by locativecome from
Pi-ka vele?Where are you coming from?
3in time expressionsforthcoming, future
Kape ne-tabo ne-le metele iote pe kape i-ka na.I'll go again next month [lit. the other month that will come].
Bsecond verb, intransitive
13sg i-ka, last verb in directional serial verbhither, this way
U-wai i-ka!Paddle this way!
Dapa ñepe na kape le-mako i-ka.They will be dancing in this direction.
Paiu vitoko i-ka.no motion, abstract vectorPaiou village is very close to here.
23sg i-ka, direction of actiontowards me or you
Ab' u-leng' i-ka!Listen to me! (lit. hear this way)
Ni-ko u-la iawo mijaka i-ka!Please pass me some fire! (this way)
Pie aipa li-atevo i-ka?Did your elders tell the story to you?
33sg i-ka, temporal meaninggoing on and on, towards now
Li-romo metele i-ka ra ra ra i-tomoe.They watched the moon over time (lit. watched it come along) till it disappeared.
~ka4 (i·)ka second verb, intransitive
rareV2 in serial construction; foll. by demonstrative(do) like (this)
U-wai ebele u-ka pon etapu!Don't shake your body like that!
derivative~kaedo how
synonymngalike
~kae (i·)kae
Lvn~wo, ~ñese
Tnm~ja, ~jive
Averb, intransitive
Cf. (?) ~ka ④ ‘do like’ + ae ① ‘what’
question verb enquiring on a situation, or the manner of an action
1dynamic readingdo how?
Kape le-kae?!How were they supposed to proceed?!
2static readingbe how?
I-kae eo?How are you?
synonym~ve ①
pe i-kae? interrogative
impersonal construction, always 3sgbecause it's how?why? for what reason?
A-kai lusa ene na pe i-kae?Why did you tear my shirt?
Pe i-kae?Why?
synonym~ve ①
we i-kae? phrase
question tagor how?…or what? …or something?
Mata ini i-ledi, we i-kae?Was he hungry or something?
Bsecond verb, intransitive
V2 in serialisation, with subject agreementhow?
A-ka a-kae? – Ni-katau anoko ni-ka.How did you come? – I just followed the road. (I walked)
Kape le-te le-kae?How could they have remained there?
synonymkavelehow
synonymngapwaehow
~kai (i·)kai verb, transitive
Lvn~kai
Tnm~kaio
tear ‹s.th.›, tear off
Li-kai bele dero.tear off the bark of the kaori tree
A-kai lusa ene na pe i-kae?Why did you tear my shirt?
kaiawo kaiawo noun
smoke
Pon kaiawo tae, ova revo.That's not smoke, that's steam.
Ei! Kaiawo pon! I-ke re, ne kulumoe re!Hey, look at the smoke! It's coming from over there, from that village over there!
see lexical list atiawofire
kaipa kaipa personal pronoun
Lvngaipa
Tnmgamito
POc*kamiu + *pat
Cf. -pa
Grammar
you: 2pl personal pronoun
Kaipa pe-te, ene mou ne-bei bete ko.subjectYou guys stay here, I'll just go for a nap.
Ene ni-mede kaipa tae!objectI'm not lying to you!
Pe-te puna kaipa tae!reflexiveKeep quiet!
O, abu, kaipa! Pe-ka p-atui botu 'none!vocativeCome on, you all! Come and check out my boat!
kakule kakule noun
Sea
nautilusNautilus pompilius.
~kamai (i·)kamai verb, transitive
Lvn~manei
Tnm~lamo
Vaeakau-Taumakoka mai
bring ‹s.th., s.o.› here, towards deictic centre
mwaliko po i-kamai tamate ponthe man who brought the Tamate masks [to this island]
Kupa pi-kamai monone apilaka ne pe-ko me pe-kamai i-wene tev' eo.We have brought here this small chest, with the idea to leave it with you.
U-le u-bi avie, me u-kamai, me le-sai ñe kava.Go pick some Malay apples, and bring them so we can eat out the taste of kava.
Synt.Often the object is expressed in preceding clause, and not repeated after ~kamai.
antonym~luitake away
see lexical list at~lui
kanamuko kanamuko noun
Types of clam shellsKanamuko engaenga
kanamuko Hippopus hippopus
komudo Tridacna crocea
kangele kome Tridacna gigas
madele Tridacna noae
Sea
Bear Paw clamHippopus hippopus.
viñe kanamukoclam shell
kanikawo kanikawo kankawo noun
Tnmvaraweno
Fish
1gengrouperEpinephelinae spp.
Fish
2espHoneycomb GrouperEpinephelus merra.
kanikawo Tangalo noun
Fish
Giant GrouperEpinephelus lanceolatus.
kanikawo teiene noun
Tnmvaraweno bimala
Fish
Yellow-edged LyretailVariola louti.
kanimoro kanimoro kanmoro noun
Tnmvakmora
Stars and constellationskanimoro
meteliko the sky
kanmoro pe i-vilu shooting star
iaero ⓑ the Milky Way
Matiki Moro Venus, the Morning Star
Matiki ⓑwogo the Evening Star
teili ⓑ the Fan: Orion's belt
1star
Nga ne bogo, le-romo i-katau vangana kanmoro iu, li-ovei li-ejau anoko iadapa.sailing shipsAt night, they would follow the shining stars, and thus recognise their itinerary.
seematiki
kanmoro pe i-vilu noun
star that travelsshooting star
Sea
2sea starOphidiasteridae spp.
~kanu (i·)kanu
Lvn~kanu
Tnm~abu
Vaeakau-Taumakokamu
Averb, transitive
chew ‹s.th.›, esp. areca nut (buioe)
Li-nge to, li-kanu buioe me puluko.They would suck on sugarcane, and also chew areca nuts with betel leaves.
see~nge
Bverb, intransitive
absol.chew areca nut, chew betelnut
Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.
Chewing areca nutsli-kanu
Vanikoro is, with Tikopia, the world's easternmost place where the chewing of areca nuts is a traditional practice. People go in the forest to pick (~ali) areca nuts (buioe), and pinch (~kidi) betel leaves (puluko). The two elements are then mixed with lime (awo), and chewed together (~kanu) until feeling dizzy (see ~avo).
kangele kaŋele noun, relational
Lvnkele
Tnmkala
1dependent nounsofter, edible part ‹of nut, shellfish›: hence endocarp; mollusc
kangele lurococonut meat
kangele vongoro pe li-vofruit of Canarium almonds
kangele komethe mollusc part of a giant clam
Li-loko aero we anive, li-si kangele i-ke mina.They collect cone shells, and cut off the mollusc part.
2main element ‹of s.th.›: prefix used for a few compound nouns
kangele iawo flames (of fire)
kangele teuko fishing hook
kangele iawo noun
living part of a fireflames
see lexical list atiawofire
kangele kome kaŋele kome noun
kangele ‘mollusc’ + kome ‘axe’
Sea
axe molluscgiant clamTridacna gigas.
Dapa noma li-vo kangele kome li-ia kome.People in the past used to break giant clams and grind them into axes.
📘 Its hard shell is traditionally used to make axes (kome), hence its name.
see lexical list atkanamukoclam shell
kangele teuko kaŋele teuko noun
Techniques
fishing hook
Namuko i-ka i-e temounu mina kangele teuko enaka!The fish came and ate away the bait from my fish hook!
Dapa li-la laviko, namolo, kangele teuko, li-la li-mini kupa.They would take pearls, clothes, fish hooks, and give them to us.
see lexical list at~omato fish
kape kape
Lvngape
Tnmmota
Grammar
Irrealis marker, with various contextual interpretations
1equiv. of a future: will
“Minga kape ba-le?” I-ko “Mobo.”“When will you leave?” – “Tomorrow.”
Kape ne-tabo ne-le metele iote pe kape i-ka na.I'll go again next month [the other month that will come].
2equiv. of a prospective: be about to
Kata kape le-tetele kape le-pinoe pon ta.They were about to start dancing.
Vitoko teve me kape le-bo.They were about to start making (their canoe).
derivativeka vitoko kapebe about to (+V), almost
derivativekata kapeProspective aspect
3equiv. of a deontic: should, be supposed to
Kape le-kae?!How were they supposed to proceed?!
Ka telepakau pe na, lek’ iaidi, idi pe li-romo idi tae. Kape le-wamu idi ñe idi.In our culture, cousins must not look at each other. They must hide from each other.
4espec. in irrealis subordinate clausesequiv. of a subjunctive
Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
U-le pon etapu! Ña leka kape i-rom' eo!with apprehensive ñaDon't go there! Your cousin might see you!
Mat’ eo nara kape u-wasi ñe idi ’tapu.with apprehensive naraBe careful not to give (the secret) away.
Nganae pe kape le-la tae.They don't need to work. [lit. there isn't anything they have to ‘take’]
derivativeme kapeso that
derivative~ko kapewant to
5equiv. of a potential: can
Nga u-le, ata tadoe kap’ i-ejau bas' eo mumule.If you go there, the soul of spirits can make your head go crazy.
Uk' one tilu, kape ne-vete enga da metae.with irrealis negation metaeMy in-laws, I can't say their names out loud.
see~oveiknow, be able
6in protasis and/or apodosisequiv. of a conditional
Ruene ponu, kape nga ngele nga i-bu, kape le-lengi aña ruene pe li-ko.It's a special door: whenever someone dies, you'll hear the sound of a door being opened.
Nga i-abu mata, kape bwara mata ini kilo ñei.counterfactualIf he had hit her eyes, she could have turned blind.
7equiv. of a habitual aspect
Pon tadoe? Pon tepakola? Kape i-abu idi?Is that a god? Is that a giant? Does he kill people?
Taluaito ini basa beme, kape i-padi basa ini: ne to ne, koro; ne lava tilu, kape bworo. Awoiu kape i-tabo koro pwo mijaka.The (heathen) priest had a bald head, which he would paint: white in the middle; black on each side; and then, white a bit again underneath.
8henceespec. with generic subject le- ③▻③equiv. of a generic present, used in instructions
basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila dawhen there is a wedding [lit. when two people follow/marry each other]
Kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.generic present with generic subject le- ③▻③You cut out the big (canoe) rail, and then the smaller pieces.
9indicates epistemic doubt or approximation
Ewe, kape nga ponu.predicative, future markedYes, that must be it.
kara kara noun, relational
Tnmke
POc*wakaR
Flora
treeroot
kara kavakava root
kara bokebanyan root
Kava li-totoe, kara i-koie samame.You chop kava to small pieces, including the roots.
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe.To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree.
contrasts withruarhizome, tuber
~karau (i·)karau verb, intransitive
Lvn~kawa
Tnm~karao
1plant+grow
Kape jebute i-karau na metae, pe ero tae.Taro can't grow here, because there's no water.
2often foll. by ~vene ‘up’childgrow up, become older
Ini i-karau Vonovono.She grew up in the Reef Islands.
synonympine▻⑥
3s.o.grow stout, put on weight; be fat
Na oie ini ka wako, na ka i-karau wako.She's of a healthy size now, she has nicely put on weight.
seeoie
~karem (i·)karem verb, transitive
PjngaremEnggot
s.o., s.th.have, have got
Ebele kuo i-karem demene.Genuine canoes have an outrigger.
📘 Although this verb is criticised as a loanword, it is frequently heard in informal speech. The equivalent in the vernacular would involve an existential predicate, usually with ~wene for inanimates, and ~te ③ for animates.
kasule kasule noun
Cf. ule
Flora
generic name for a number of creepers and vines
Kasule, li-ovei pe l-ejau ñe idi pe li-tavie.medicine leavesSome vines are useful for sick people.
Kumara ini rua kasule.Sweet potatoes are the tuber of a vine.
kasule aulo noun
hermit-crab's vinek.o. creeper
kasule ijene noun
k.o. creeper
kasule lava abilo noun
snake vinek.o. liana, ‘Great bean vine’
synonymlava abilo
kasule loubaido noun
coconut-crab's vinek.o. creeper
kasule loubo noun
crab's vinek.o. creeper
kasule moloe noun
red vinek.o. creeper
kasule vorobiliko noun
k.o. creeper
kasule wa-biouro noun
long-fruit vinecalabashCrescentia cujete.
📘 Not a native tree of Vanikoro.
kasule wa-wabulubu noun
round-fruit vinecalabash
kata kata Tense Aspect Mood marker
Cf. katae
Perfect aspect
Kata ni-p' ene tamwase.I'm delighted now.
derivativekata kape
katae katae ka tae predicative
Cf. ka… tae ka ② ‘Perfect’ + tae ‘there is nothing’
be over, finished
Noma, ni-ajau nabene; basavono na ka tae.I used to smoke in the past; but now it's over.
Katae pon.conclusion of story+It's finished.
synonymawoiu
derivativekatae ka
katae ka kataka kata ka Tense Aspect Mood marker
Grammar
1Iamitive aspect, ‘already’. Intensive form of Perfective ka ②
Viko iadapa katae ka i-tomoe.Their treasure has disappeared.
Wako. Kata ka ni-ovei.Alright; I've understood.
Katae ka kuo ponta.noun predicateIt's [become] a canoe now.
Kata ka aeve kata kape i-tavali.combined with Prospective aspectThe sun was already about to go down.
seeawoiu ⓑComplete aspect
Grammar
2Experiential perfect: have done (V) already at least once
Kata ka ai-e?Have you ever eaten this?
Grammar
3with clause-final deicticInaugurative perfect: (do V) for the first time
Kata ka ni-e vivilo na!This is my first time eating Cyrtosperma taro.
Katae ka ni-rom ponta.That's when I saw her for the very first time.
Kata ka ni-ovei na pe vilo pon, pe li-e.I just discovered that this plant is edible.
Synt.This inaugurative meaning (‘… for the first time’) requires the clause-finally presence of a focal deictic (na ① ⓐ, na ta, pon ta) – equivalent to ‘now’ / ‘then’.
kata kape katakape Tense Aspect Mood marker
kata ‘Perfect’ + kape ‘Future’
Prospective aspect: be about to; almost
Kata kape le-tetele kape le-pinoe pon ta.They were about to start dancing.
Udo kata kape ka moso.Bananas are almost ripe.
La-te ra ra, bwara kata kape ebieve iune bwara metele tuo.They stayed there, perhaps almost a whole year, or at least six months.
Kata ka aeve kata kape i-tavali.combined with PerfectiveThe sun was already about to go down.
~katau (i·)katau
Lvn~ki
Tnm~ie, ~kato
Averb, transitive
1join ‹s.o.› in motion or in action; follow
Ba-ko ba-katau ene le-le ne toloto?Do you guys want to join me to the lake?
synonym~kila ②
2figfollow, come after ‹s.o.›
tili' one pe i-katau ene viri[my brother who follows me behind] my next brother (in age)
Tilio emele pe i-katau eo?Is this your younger sister?
contrasts with~iumucome first
i-katau-teve noun
he follows aftersecond-born, in a group of siblings
seemakumosofirstborn
3follow ‹s.th.›
Kape le-tabo le-katau na kiapa ponu.Let's retrace our own steps again.
U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka.Just follow the road a little further up.
Dapa iakapa noma li-ovei pe li-pwalau: li-katau kanimoro li-le ne basakulumoe kula.Our ancestors used to practice navigation: they would follow the stars, and reach new islands.
4figfollow intellectually ‹a changing referent›; refer to, adapt to, (do s.th.) according to
Noma li-katau ñe metele.calendarIn the old days, people would just refer themselves to [lit. follow] the moon.
mata i-katau phrase
s.o.eyes followobserve carefully ‹s.th.›
U-ka u-te u-romo. Mata i-katau tetawene na!Come sit here and look. Observe carefully [lit. let your eyes follow] these drawings!
5be suitable for, suit ‹s.o., s.th.›
Buro pon i-katau abo ne ene!humThis song suits my blood! (=I love it!)
Emele pon i-katau awa ene!humThis girl sure suits my desire! (=I dig her!)
Bsecond verb, transitive
1inanimate, 3sg subject(move, walk+) following ‹path, road+›, along ‹place›
I-kotu i-katau ero ponu i-ven' i-le.He ran along the river, all the way up.
Li-elele kuo i-katau revo.They dragged the boat [following the sea] along the coast.
Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.This kava bowl has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
2figadapt o.'s actions+ to ‹s.o., s.th.›; hence (do) along, according to ‹s.th.›
Le-woi okoro awoiu le-(w)oburo i-katau.We pound bamboos (giving the rhythm), and then we sing along.
3+location(do s.th.) systematically, from ‹place› to ‹place›; (do) in every ‹place›
Uña toñaki van li-ka, li-ka li-dai temaka i-katau uña basakulumoe.Ships used to come and explore the area, going from one island to the other [lit. following islands].
I-e idi, i-e idi, i-katau kulumoe ra ra ra ra ra ra – kulumoe moli.(the Ogre) ate people, dozens of people, going from one village to another [lit. following villages], on and on and on, until all the villages were empty.
La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.They collected tree shoots, and began to plant them everywhere in the forest [lit. following the forest].
4be sufficient in quantity; enough for ‹s.o., s.th.›
Li-bi vongoro we teliki iote, teliki iote, i-katau dapa awoiu.They collected almonds for each chief, one after the other, enough for [lit. following] them all.
~katei (i·)katei
Lvn~kole(i)
Tnm~ko
Averb, transitive
1pull, draw ‹s.th.›
La-katei kiñe vabasa da.They're pulling each other's hair.
Basavono po le-ko li-ago idi, li-katei puro i-ke ka li-ago.When you want to shoot someone, you draw out an arrow and shoot.
Naut
2hoist ‹sail›
Li-katei bavede i-vene ne iuro, peini me le-vesu i-ke i-le.They hoisted the sail up the mast, so they could sail away.
3draw on ‹a resource›; hence suck ‹milk›
I-katei ero ne et' iape.He's sucking on the milk of his mother.
4apply ‹s.th.› (on s.th., ñe) through a drawing motion
U-la uro, u-katei ñe wabula eo.You take charcoal powder, and rub it on your cheeks.
5hencegrate ‹tuber› in a drawing motion
mañoka pe li-kateigrated manioc (a dish)
Daviñevi kula li-ta bele mina, dapa kula li-katei.yamsSome women take the skin off, others grate them.
Bverb, intransitive
pull for s.th.go fishing (for s.th., ñe)
Kape le-la teuko ne jokoro me le-katei ñe namuko.We'll take a fishing rod and go angling.
kava kava noun
Lvnkava
Polynesiankava
Flora
1kava plantPiper methysticum.
kara kavaa kava root
kava moloe noun
red kavaa reddish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse
kava tebene noun
yellow kavaa yellowish variety of kava, now fallen into disuse
kava ele noun
Flora
a wild variety of kava, not suitable for drinkingMacropiper latifolium.
Words of kavakava
kava kava
teipu coconut shell
tano kava bowl
~vili squeeze
~anu drink
2a narcotic drink made after this plant, and consumed by men on important occasions
Dapenuo li-le ne toplau, li-anu kava. Li-anu kava awoiu, ka li-vongo viri.Men would go in the men's clubhouse, and drink kava. Once they had drunk kava, they would eat.
Daviñevi wopine li-ovei pe li-anu kava.Adult women are allowed to drink kava.
Tano ponu, li-ae mijaka me kava i-pu i-katau.This kava bowl (tano) has been hollowed out a little, to allow kava to flow along.
📘 The consumption of kava is claimed to be customary on Vanikoro. However, the fact that this is a Polynesian loanword suggests this practise was introduced in relatively times. Still today it is only drunk on rare occasions; the traditional daily drug of Vanikoro is really the areca nut (buioe).
Preparing kavaLi-ejau kava
Kava li-totoe, kara i-koie samame, li-wete me wamtaka, awoiu li-vili; ka li-anu.
You chop kava to small pieces, including the root; you grind it, mince it, squeeze it; then you drink it.
kavele kavele interrogative
1as adverbhow? in what way?
Ngaten’ na pe i-ka kavele?How did that thing end up here?
see~kae
2as predicatebe how?
Kavele?How's things?
Ka kavele?How are things now?
ka vitoko kape ka fitoko kape Tense Aspect Mood marker
1it's now close thatbe about to; almost
Avtebe adapa ka i-maili i-vene kata ka vitoko kape moso.Their taros had grown up and were almost ripe.
synonymkata kape
2counterfactual meaningnearly, almost
Ka vitoko kape i-abu tanoma ini, ia i-abu i-kovi.He nearly hit her face; but he missed.
~kawi (i·)kawi verb, oblique transitive
put (x) on top of (y); cover (s.th., ñe)
Ini i-la namolo i-kawi ñe men' iape.She took her cloth and put it on her child.
kaworo kaworo noun
Fish
White-spotted Spinefoot, Seagrass RabbitfishSiganus canaliculatus.
~ke1 (i·)ke verb, transitive
POc*kaRat
man, animalbite
Nara bwoe i-ke eo!Make sure sharks don't bite you.
muko pe i-ke idi [fly that bites people] mosquito
~ke2 (i·)ke
Lvn~iu
Tnm~kao
Averb, intransitive
1s.o.go outside, go out; come out (of, mina)
U-ke u-ka na!Come out!
Li-koie ne moe, ka labiou tae, dapa ka tabo li-ke li-ka.They went inside, and just a moment later, again they came out.
Ia emele iote, ini i-te, ka i-ke i-le tae.There was a woman who only stayed [at home], who never came out.
Mata ini i-ke, i-ke i-ke ponu, i-romo Toplau.[lit. his look went out] He looked outside, looked on and on, till he finally caught sight of the Men's house.
Men' iape kape i-te ne toplau, ra basavono po kape ai' iape i-wasu emele i-min' ini ka i-ke mina toplau pon.leave an institutionThe son will live in the Men's house until [the moment when] his father arranges a wife for him: then he will leave that house.
antonym~koieenter
2s.th.come out, emerge
Mana ka i-ke.The flowers have come out.
Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.The pig tusk has grown out into a full circle.
Kape kangele iawo i-ke ne moboe voko pon.The flames will come out of the hole between the stones.
Panavono i-ke.I'm sweating [lit. Sweat is coming out]
3hences.th.appear, be seen or heard
I-lengi piene pe i-ke i-ko – “E !”He heard a voice come out, that went “Hey!”
Uña ngatene pi-romo na, ngaliko ngatene pe i-ke tev' emel' enone.All those things you're seeing, are things that appeared to my wife.
4somets.th.be left out
Uña ngatene kula i-ke.Some details have been left out.
see~tomoedisappear
5geocentric coordinatesgo from inland towards the sea; go downhill
Kata kape le-mini ngapiene, li-koie li-au bute. Wako li-ke li-lui i-wene.As they were getting ready for the festival, they went to their garden and harvested some taro. Then they came back down to the village [lit. came out] with the taro.
Li-koie takoie ne touro ponu, dapa wopine kula li-ke li-le.While they were walking up towards the shore, some of the [island's] chiefs walked down [lit. out] towards them.
seetetakeseawards
6at seamove away from the island, towards the ocean
Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after intransitive verb(move+) out
Vilsao ka i-tobo i-ke.The tornado pierced through. (out of the clouds)
matavo pe i-ovo i-kea bubbling spring [a spring that comes out bubbling]
Li-koie ne lema kuo awoiu pon, ka li-opogo li-ke.They got inside the canoe, and suddenly they leapt out.
Dapa ka li-mako i-ke.They came out (of their hiding) dancing.
2after transitive verb(take, move s.th.) out, outside
Ni-wowo revo i-ke mina lema kuo.I'm bailing out the (sea) water from inside the canoe.
Piene mijaka ene ponu, ene li-la i-ke ne uie buka ponu.This little story was taken out of [the pages of] this book.
3away from the middle of the island: hence away from the forest, towards the village; down towards the coast
Le-katei kuo le-lui le-lui le-lui le-lui i-le i-le – i-ke ne kulumoe.from the forestThey tow the canoe down a—ll the way to the village.
4away from the island, towards the ocean
Ka iote i-tavea i-ke i-le mijaka.One [ship] drifted a little bit back towards the ocean [lit. a little outwards].
Dapa li-wai i-ke i-le.They paddled away towards the ocean.
Ngiro Palapu i-ka ka li-aiu li-ke li-pwalau i-le Iura.As soon as the northern wind began to blow, they left [Vanikoro] and set off to sail southwards.
keba keᵐba personal pronoun
Lvngema
Tnmgabe
Grammar
1we, i.e. me and him/her: personal pronoun for 1st person exclusive dual
Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
Totokale na, keba ba-kila keba.reflexive constructionIn that photo, we are getting married. [lit. we are marrying ourselves/each other]
2Inclusory construction, foll. by NPme and (X), (X) and I
keba emele 'nonemy wife and I
Woiote, keba Faithful ba-ioi teuko…The other day, I went fishing with Faithful…
kela kela personal pronoun
Lvngamila
Tnmgamile
POc*kamiuPOc*rua
Grammar
you two: personal pronoun for 2nd person dual
Ia kela, kape ba-le vele?Where are you two going?
kengele keŋele noun
Fish
Sammara squirrelfishNeoniphon sammara.
ete ie kengele noun
Fish
mother of kengeleSilverspot squirrelfishSargocentron caudimaculatum.
kengetone keŋetone noun
Fish
1Sabre SquirrelfishSargocentron spiniferum.
Fish
2Pink SquirrelfishSargocentron tieroides.
~kepe (i·)kepe verb, intransitive
defecate
main entry~epe
~kevei kevei verb, transitive
Caus. of ~ke ② ⓐ ‘go out’
take ‹s.th., s.o.› out
Ini i-aiu i-ka i-le i-koie i-tabe pi' iape i-kevei.She came in, took her grandson in her arms, and took him out (of the room).
see lexical list at~lui
kia kia personal pronoun
Lvngita
Tnmgie
POc*kita
Grammar
we two, i.e. you and I: personal pronoun for 1st person inclusive dual
La-labu ma kia.Let's shake hands.
Labiou tamwase kia ka la-lengi kia tae.We haven't heard from each other for a very long time.
Kia la-laiaini tapepa.You and I are swapping presents.
kiane kiane adjective
Lvnsegei
Tnmgamoi
fast, quick
Kiane, kiane, kiane! U-aiu na me la-le!Quick, quick, quick! Get up, let's go!
U-wai u-mabui! Kiane ’tapu!following adjectivePaddle slowly! Not too fast!
Dapa kula li-ovei pe li-vete piene kiane.Some people tend to speak fast.
antonym~mabui
kiapa kiapa personal pronoun
Lvngitu
Tnmgeto
Grammar
we, i.e. we and you: personal pronoun for 1st person inclusive plural
kiapa abia naall of us here
Le-wamu kiapa ñe ini!reflexiveLet's hide away from him!
Awis pine pe li-wapio kiapa li-vet' piene.Thank you for having gathered together to talk.
Awa kiapa i-su, uña et' akapa ka uña ai' akapa dapa samame uña tili' akapa dapa kula ka li-re kiapa ne lovia vono iote po kiapa li-te ene na.mourningWe are all sad, because our mothers, our fathers, our siblings – several have left us, in this world where we live.
~kidi (i·)kiⁿdi verb, transitive
POc*kinit
1pinch
2esppick ‹betel leaves, puluko› by pinching their stems
Lai-au jebute, la-kidi puluko ada, lai-ali buioe ada, la-kamai ponu.They went to harvest some taros, pinch off some betel leaves, pick some areca nuts, and came back.
kidisa revo kiⁿdisa revo noun
Sea
salt
seerevosea
kie1 kie noun
Tnmkie
POc*kiRe
Flora
k.o. pandanus, the leaves of which are commonly used for weavingPandanus tectorius.
Li-vei uie kie.They're weaving pandanus leaves.
synonymwoubo
seevede
kie tebene noun
yellowed pandanusvariety of pandanus leaves with leaves of a pale yellow colour
kie2 kie noun, relational
1hole of ‹s.th.› dug in the ground
Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai awoiu ponu, li-iu tepapa ene.They dug holes for the dancing boards all around (the village area), and then they buried the boards in them.
seemoboehole
2espgrave of ‹s.o.›, sepulture
Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
kie Laperusthe sepulture of Lapérouse
~kila1 (i·)kila verb, transitive
Lvn~kile
Tnm~kilo
1call out to ‹s.o.›
Abu u-kila in' i-koie!Call him in!
Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.
2invoke ‹deity›, with a prayer or curse
Li-la viko li-lateli, li-ka li-kila tadoe pon li-ko “Visipure! U-abu ne adawo!”Once they had put the sacred money down, they began to invoke their gods: “Fisipure! Come down from your clouds!”
3call, get ‹s.o.› on the phone or the teleradio
Abu ne-kila Puma!teleradioLet me try and ring the guys in Puma.
📘 Vanikoro has no phone. Communication between villages, or with other islands, is done by teleradio.
4followed by ~ko ② ⓑcall ‹s.th., s.o.› with such and such a name
Dapa li-kila li-ko “Beme” pe ini beme.They call him “Baldhead” because he's bald.
Li-kila temaka pon li-ko “Moe ma Tadoe”.That place is called “Devils' Lair”.
~kila2 (i·)kila verb, transitive
Lvn~kile
Tnm~kile, ~ao
1follow, join ‹s.o., s.th.› in motion or action
A-ko u-ka u-kila keba?Would you like to join us?
see~kataufollow
2manmarry ‹a woman›
Ni-kila emele pe Tetevo.I married a woman from Utupua.
Nga u-romo leka, kape u-kila.Should you have any eye contact with your cross-cousin, you will have to marry her.
contrasts with~te tevemarry ‹man›
~kila emele verb-object idiom
manjoin a womanwed, marry; be married
Dapa po li-kila emele, dapa wopine.Those who are married, the adults.
3dual subject, reciprocal constructionmarry each othermarry, get married
Totokale na, keba ba-kila keba.In that photo, we are getting married.
Bogo iamela pe ba-kila kela?Was it the day of your wedding? [lit. was it your day when you married each other]
basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila dawhen there is a wedding [lit. when two people follow/marry each other]
li-kila idi phrase
indefinite subject and objectgroup of peoplesomeone marries someonecelebrate a wedding
tomwona pe li-kila idia special pudding for wedding [lit. for when s.o. marries s.o.]
Idi na dapa li-tau jebute peini po li-kila idi.People have cooked taros for the wedding.
Phraseol.This periphrase makes for the absence of a noun ‘wedding’.
~kilase (i·)kilase ~kilasi ~klase ~klasi verb, transitive
Lvn~kilaka
1address, talk to ‹s.o.›, esp. with a formal or solemn tone; invoke
Li-puie li-kilasi tadoe adapa me i-somoli toñaki ie Laperusi.So they addressed solemnly their god, begging him to destroy the ships of Lapérouse.
see~votei
2inform ‹s.o.› (about s.th., ñe), esp. in some length; explain, tell
Ini i-kilasi mwalik' iape, ñe ngaten' na po i-rom' pon.She told her husband about all she had seen.
Dapa iono le-ka, kape u-kilase dapa ñei.When your family comes, you'll explain it all to them.
Idi mwaliko li-tamava se tadoe, li-kilasi li-ko kape le-le le-pinoe.The men invoked the spirits, asking them the right to perform the ritual dances.
synonym~viñi
kilo kilo predicative
Lvnvegise
eyes, matablind
Mata ini kilo.He is blind.
kiñe kiɲe noun, relational
kiñe tamate, the long fibres worn by the dancing spirits (tamate)
1long, thin leaflets or vegetal fibres, typic. hanging down in great number
kiñe aboblades of grass
kiñe luroleaflets of the coconut palm
kiñe otovolong and thin leaves forming the eaves of a sago thatch
Savene, uña kiñe po li-vei ñi wamtaka tamwase.savene’ mats have their fibers woven very delicately.
kiñe buioe noun
Areca fibresgrass skirt made with fibres of Areca palm (buioe)
kiñe voro noun
Boys wearing a grass-skirt (kiñe voro)
cottonwood fibresgrass skirt made of fibres of cottonwood hibiscus (voro ①), typic. worn by children
kiñe tamate noun
the long, many fibres made of leaves, which hang down from a tamate ritual mask, by way of the Spirit's hair
2by extlong, thin appendage hanging from ‹s.th.› in high number
kiñe udoyoung and small bananas on a banana bunch
kiñe tebolong rain drops during a shower
kiñe-biouro [long tentacles] octopus
kiñe viabasa kiñe vabasa noun
head hairs, considered in their length rather than their volume
kiñe viabasaone hair
La-katei kiñe vabasa da.They're pulling each other's hair.
kiñe-biouro kiɲe ᵐbiouro noun
Tnmmuva
Fish
long-tentaclesoctopusOctopus spp.
motomoro ie kiñe-biourosucker of an octopus
kiñekiñe kiɲekiɲe adjective
Redup. kiñe
leaf, plantpinnate
bamele kiñekiñepinnate philodendron
kisin kisin kijin noun
Engkitchen
kitchen
Vongoro i-koie ne uña tekate i-avo boso iawo, ne kisin.The almonds were inside baskets above the fire, in the kitchen.
ko1 ko postverb
Lvnko, gapae
Tnmimo
1first, as a first action
Mou, le-vongo ko!Wait, let's first have dinner!
Mou me ne-iumu ne-le n-ioi teuko ko.Let me first go angling.
Kaipa pe-te, ene mou ne-bei bete ko.You guys stay here, I'll just go for a nap.
📘 Clause-final particle.
2with imperative(do) for a second: forms a polite order; hence please
U-ka ko!Come here a second!
seeabu
3deictic useexclamatory particle pointing to the immediate context, typic. to the addressee's speech or action
A-tomoli ko!That's just a lie!
Na bwara eo ko!I'm sure that's you!
In' na nga barava tadoe ko!Isn't he absolutely incredible?!
~ko2 (i·)ko
Lvn~pu
Tnm~po
Averb, transitive
1alonesay ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech
A-ko ae?What did you say?
Ka i-ko: “Eo pon, ive? Ka ai-ve?” Ini i-ko “Mm.” – “Ka menu vele?” I-ko “Menu tae!” I-ko “Tae, i-kae?”dialogueHe said “How's things? Have you given birth?” She said “Yes.” – “But where is the baby?” She said “There is no baby!” He said “What do you mean, there's no baby?”
Mwaliko kape i-woi ne teviri peini kuo ponu, awoiu kap’ i-ko “Ia! Takoli! Ia ia, takoli ! ia ia!”future tenseThe boy will strike the canoe's hull, and then he'll go “Hey ho! Push! Hey ho! Push!”
derivativenga li-koformula used when looking for one's words
synonym~vetesay
li-ko predicative
they sayso they say…: formula found in narratives, as the narrator reminds the audience that the story originates in hearsay or oral tradition
Li-ko noma, uña toñaki van li-ka…It is said that in the olden times, ships used to come here!
Li-ko Banie nao, ini i-waivo ñe idi.And so the god Banie – or so they say – provided his teachings to humans.
Li-ko Tamate ponu: mwaliko iote da emel’ iape.opening of narrative[lit. “They say” the Tamate…] Here is the story of the Tamate spirits. Once upon a time, there was a man and a woman.
see~atevotell, narrate
2qualifying an NPcall s.th. ‹so and so›
Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?[this, the language of Teanu, you say what?] How do you say this in Teanu?
toñaki pe kiapa li-ko ‘tepakare tilu’that sort of ship is called ‘catamaran’
Tadoe iadapa pon, enga ini – dapa Lovono li-ko ‘Visipure’; ka dapa Teanu li-ko ‘Vilisao’.The god in question was called – in the Lovono language, (they say) ‘Fisipure’; in Teanu, ‘Filisao’.
seeenganame
3+ Irrealis clause, different subjecttell s.o. to do s.th.; order, suggest that
Ai’ one i-ovei piene Tetevo ka ni-ko u-vagasi ini pon ta.My father knows the language of Utupua, I suggest you contact him.
Pe li-ko u-ke u-te maro etapu!with Prohibitive etapuBut they forbade you from going out!
4+ realis clausethink, believe (that)
Li-ko kulumoe iadapa pine na, li-iumu li-romo temaka na.the French navigatorsThis large island, they believed they were the first ones to discover it.
Ka pi-ko aplaka, iula toñaki wopine.You think it was a small one? (No!) that anchor was gigantic.
Ni-ko li-abu dapa ne toñaki tae.I don't think they were killed on the ship.
derivative~ko bwarabelieve, think, hope
synonym~vodothink, reflect
5+ Irrealis clausewant to, be about to
iepiene po ne-ko ni-atevo na…the story I'm about to tell…
Wako. Nganae a-ko u-vete?Alright. What do you want to say?
Ne-ko ne-la awis pine iakapa ne-mini tili’ akapa Dr Alex.I wish to express our gratitude towards our brother Dr Alex.
Ngele nga i-ko i-oburo buro ae pon, kape i-obur’ i-le.Whoever wants to sing a song, they can go ahead and sing.
Nganae le-ko l-ajau, i-wene moli teve dapa.ParadiseWhatever they wish to do is easy to them.
Da viñevi kula awa dapa li-ko li-anu kava.Some women want to drink kava.
Ne-ko ne-romo tamwase!with intensifierI'd really love to see it!
Synt.Modal attraction: ~ko itself often takes Irrealis, due to attraction (prolepsis) towards the mood of its complement.
derivativeawa ~ko
synonymawa ~viane
derivative~ko mewant
derivative~ko kapewant
Bsecond verb, transitive
~ko serialized to other verbs
1serialized after a verb of speechintroduces direct reported speech
Ka i-viñ’ emel’ iape i-ko: “U-wai i-ka!”He told his wife (saying) “Paddle this way!”
Ka i-waivo ñe dapa i-ko: “Wako, kape le-si nga ne.”He explained to them (saying) “Alright, here is how you can write.”
Buro pe li-mede i-ka pon li-ko: “…”The song they were singing went like this: “…”
Synt.Equivalent of a Quotative particle. Usually not translated in English.
2somet(go) like this: gestural quotative, introducing a gesture or a face expression
Aero i-dadai i-ko “—”. Aero, aero pine!The fence was going around, it went like this: “—” [Gesture]. It was a giant fence!
3serialized after a verb of speechintroduces indirect reported speech. Functions as an obligatory complementizer ‘(say+) that’
Ne buka ponu, uie kwate tamana iune, li-vete li-ko piene ponu li-la teve dapa Tukupie.In the book, page thirty one, they say (that) the story was recorded from the Tikopians.
Ka ni-lengi li-ko ka nga iune i-te nga ponu tae.different subject of ‘hear’ and ‘say’I never heard that [lit. they say] anyone stayed there.
Ka ni-lengi ni-ko dapa kula li-te tae.same subject of ‘hear’ and ‘say’: agreementI never heard that [lit. never I-heard I-say] there was anyone else there.
I-ko i-romo abo ne kaipa i-ko pi-tavie we tae.He wants to examine your blood to see if you are sick.
Synt.Common after verbs such as ~vete ‘say’, ~viñi ‘tell’, ~watebo ‘ask’, ~atevo ‘narrate’, ~waivo ‘explain’, ~lengi ‘hear’, ~romo ‘see’.
4serialized after a verb of perception or thoughtintroduces the content of thought. Functions as an obligatory complementizer, Eng. ‘(think, know, want+) that’
I-romo i-ko menu tae.She saw (that) there was no baby.
Basavono ponu li-ovei li-ko toñaki kape i-ka i-la dapa ponu.At that moment, they knew that the ship was going to come and rescue them.
Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.I don't know what to do.
Ni-vodo ni-ko eo ka uña damiliko iono pi-te wako.emailI hope (that) you and your children are well.
Kupa, awa kupa i-viane pi-ko u-ro toñaki ponu.serialized to awa ~viane ‘we want’We really want you to look at that ship over there.
derivative~ko mein order to (+Irrealis)
5serialized; somet. followed by me ② ⓐ and/or kapewith the plan or intention to; in order to, so that
Li-iu dapa li-bei dapa ñe voko li-ko nga uo.They would bury them and cover them with stones, [they meant it] like a cairn.
Ni-tab’ menu ba-ko ba-wo mina moe iakapa na.serial patternI lifted my child so we could run away from our house.
Ka i-loko voko i-bei ñi i-ko nara idi kape le-l’ le-la.Apprehensional nara ⓑHe laid some stones above it so nobody could come and steal it.
synonymme kape
6+ non-verbal predicatesaying that (it) isas ‹so and so›
Li-labu ene li-ko tili' adapa.They have adopted me as their brother.
~ko3 (i·)ko
Lvn~ka
Tnm~ko
Averb, intransitive
be open
Jokoro pon, tevie i-ko, tevie li-botongo.On bamboo drums, one side is open, the other side is shut.
antonym~bono ⓐbe shut
~ko pine verb, intransitive
~ko ③ ⓐ ‘open’ + pine ‘large’
mouth, eyes, legs+open bigbe wide open
derivative~kopinedeep
Bverb, transitive
open ‹s.th.›
U-ko ruene me ne-ke!Open the door so I can go out.
Ruene ponu, kape nga ngele nga i-bu, kape le-lengi aña ruene pe li-ko.tale of the magical doorIt's a special door: whenever someone dies, you'll hear the sound of a door being opened.
Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.They open the door, and then shut it back.
antonym~bono ⓑshut
~ko4 (i·)ko
Tnm~loa
Averb, transitive
wait for ‹s.o., s.th.›
Le-ko Bakap i-ka.Let's wait for Bakap (to come back).
Kape u-ko ene mijaka nga ba-vete piene awoiu.Just wait a little for me, until I've talked to him.
Bsecond verb, transitive
(do V) waiting for ‹s.th., s.o.›
Ne-te ne-ko eo na.I'll stay here, waiting for you.
Mamote i-wene i-ko kia.He's still (lying) waiting for us.
synonymrema
kobe koᵐbe noun
Flora
k.o. tree with hard wood; unidentified
kiñe kobe noun
Sea
grass-blades of kobeSea grassCymodocea spp.
~ko bwara (i·)ko ᵐbʷara phrase
~ko ② ⓐ▻④ + bwara ‘perhaps’
1say~think that perhapssuppose, believe, think (that)
Ni-punuo ñi tae, ni-ko bara okor 'naka.I didn't steal (the knife), I thought it was mine.
Ni-ko bwara a-mene pe u-e none ponu.I thought you were tired of eating that food.
Li-madau li-ko bwara kape le-ka le-loko dapa.They were afraid [thinking] that they would be kidnapped.
2rarehope (that)
Li-ko bwara moro waini kape u-tabo u-vagasi dapa.They hope that one day you'll visit them again.
synonym~vodo
~koene (i·)koene verb, transitive
put on, wear ‹clothes, hat+›
I-koene namolo 'none.She's wearing my clothes.
mwaliko pe ka i-koene Tamate ponuthe man who's wearing the Tamate mask
~koie (i·)koje
Lvn~su
Tnm~lae
Averb, intransitive
1s.o.go in, enter (a house+)
Ka i-ka i-koie ne moe ka i-romo emel’ iape i-wene teve iawo.As he walked into his house, he saw his wife lying by the fire.
Li-koie ne lema kuo awoiu pon, ka li-le.They stepped into the canoe, and took off.
antonym~ke ② ⓐexit
2s.o.be inside
Li-koie ne moe mata dapa i-ke.They were inside their houses, looking out.
3s.th.be inside ‹s.th.›; be part of ‹s.th.›, be included
Ka savene i-koie.in a boxThere was also a valuable mat inside.
Kava li-totoe, kara i-koie samame.You chop kava to small pieces, including the roots.
4figs.th.be pleasurable to ‹s.o.›, suit ‹s.o.› greatly
Makone na i-koie ne ebele ene!This dance really gets under my skin! [lit. it gets in my body]
5geocentric coordinatesgo inland, e.g. walk from the shore towards a village, or from a village towards the middle of the island
Kape le-le le-koie ne ngogoro ponu.They all walk inland towards the forest.
U-koie tetakoie, Pakare: u-bi avie.from a small peninsula off VanikoroWhy don't you go inland (on Banie the main island), on Pakare; go pick some apples.
derivativetakoieinland
6espfrom the villagego inland to work in o.'s food garden
Kata kape le-mini ngapiene, li-koie li-au bute. Wako li-ke li-lui i-wene.As they were getting ready for the festival, they went to their garden [lit. they went in] and harvested some taro. Then they came back down to the village [lit. they came out] with the taro.
seesekelegarden
7from the seareach an island: e.g. swim towards the shore; land, dock a boat
Basavono pe toñaki tamwaliko, dapa kula li-koie ere se vono Lege re.When their ship got destroyed, some managed to reach the island [swimming], towards Lengge over there.
Kape la-koie, dapa na kap’ li-abu kia!on a canoeIf we land there, the islanders will kill us!
synonym~sai ①land
8from far awaytravel to an island; hence settle in, immigrate
La-vesu bavede i-le. I-le, la-koie Tetevo.They hoisted the sail and travelled; travelled towards (the island of) Utupua.
Dapa Tukupie li-koie li-te ne tanoe akapa Vanikoro ponu.The Tikopians have (immigrated and) settled on our land here on Vanikoro.
9s.th.wash ashore
Dapa ne da ka li-bu awoiu. Vana ka li-tavea li-koie li-sai i-katau temaka ponu.All their relatives died instantly. Their [bodies] were floating, washing ashore one after the other, all along the beach.
10the sea, revoswell inland, flood the land
Ka revo i-koie ka le-gulei kuo pon le-lui.As the sea water swole inland, they towed their canoe in.
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after intransitive verb(move+) in, inside
I-le i-koie ne moe ma tadoe pon.He walked into the temple of the Spirits.
U-ka mata eo i-koie u-romo ngaten’ ae ne lema na, ne moe na.Come have a look inside! [lit. Come and your eyes enter] Look at what's inside this house!
2after transitive verb(take, move s.th.) in, inside
Tabuluburi, ini tonge iote pine pe li-loko puro i-koie ene.A quiver is a long container where arrows are stacked in.
3(go, take+) inland
Ka i-la i-koie ne kopa ponu i-lateli ne elene aplaka tev’ iu re.LapérouseHe took that copper sheet inland, and buried it in the clearing up over there.
4(go, take+) ashore
Ka li-lebie li-koie.They waded back ashore.
Dapa kula na bwara ka li-bu ne revo, dapa kula bwara li-wowo li-koie ne kulumoe, li-te ne kulumoe pon.Lapérouse wreckI believe some died at sea, but others managed to swim ashore, and stay on the island.
5(go, take+) towards the island
Dapa ne temotu tilu pon li-la kuo li-ko me le-wai i-koie tetakoie: metae!The people on the two islets took to their canoes, hoping to paddle towards the (main) island – to no avail.
Tepakare tilu, i-ka i-koie. I-koie i-ka Paiu pon.The two catamarans were sailing towards the island [lit. were coming in], towards the village of Paiu.
~koioi (i·)kojoi verb, transitive
causative of ~koie ‘enter’: cause ‹s.o., s.th.› to go in, introduce
see lexical list at~lui
1cause ‹s.th.› to go in, hence insert, put in, pack
U-koioi etapu!Don't put it in!
2cause ‹s.o.› to go in, hence bring in, lead ‹s.o.› in
Ai' iape kape i-la men' iape i-koioi ne Toplau.The father would introduce his son into the Men's House.
3geocentric coordinatescause ‹s.th.› to go inland: take ‹s.th.› from the sea towards the shore, or from the shore towards the village
Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.
~koioi waiero verb-object idiom
bring the waves inlandsurf the waves, for recreation
La-koioi waiero?Shall we go surf?
4id.cause ‹s.o.› to go inland, esp. welcome ‹travellers› on the beach and lead them inland
Ka li-loko dapa li-koioi. Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi ta-koie.(The islanders) welcomed them inland. They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.
see~wokobe
~ko kape (i·)ko kape construction
~ko ② ⓐ▻⑤ + kape ‘Future’
1+ Irrealis clause, same subjectwant, intend to; be about to
Ne-ko kape ne-viñi kiapa.I want to talk to you all.
Dapa li-ko kape le-ka kape l-abu kaipa!They want to come and kill you!
Ini i-ko kape i-etengi, ka dapa li-viñi li-ko…She was about to break in tears – so they talked to her…
Li-te li-te ra, ka la-ko kape la-le ne basakulumoe iote re, Tetevo.After waiting for a while, they decided to travel to another island called Utupua.
2+ Irrealis clause, different subjectwant s.o. to do s.th.
Awa ene ni-ko kape le-l’ l-aneve Toplau.subject: awa▻③ ‘my mind’I want them to go clean up the men's house.
synonym~ko me kape
kokoro kokoro adjective
dry, dried
Li-loko vongoro i-vene ne belemele li-sabisi li-maliawo boso. Pon ra kokoro.You stack the almonds upon the lattice, light fire underneath, so they dry up.
Li-tabe i-le i-wene ne aeve me kokoro.They bring it out to lie in the sun so it dries up.
Komoudo, va li-vai kokoro me peini melevele.resultativeClam shells are commonly dried in the fire, and preserved in case of a famine.
antonym~dobuowet
kolokolo
Anoun
A man wearing a breast plate (kolokolo), 1836.
“breast plate” made of clamshell, tradit. worn by dignitaries (wopine, teliki)
Noma, idi wopine li-akawo kolokolo me i-botongo dapa.In ancient times, great men used to wear 'kolokolo' breast plates as a protection.
📘 The prime function was to protect one's heart from the enemy's arrows. Later, it became part of the decorum of high chiefs.
Bproper nounKolokolo
Mythology
name of a Spirit (tamate)
see lexical list attamate
~ko me (i·)ko.me
Averb, transitive
~ko ② ⓐ + me ② ⓐ ‘Subjunctive’
+ Irrealiswant to, intend to
Ni-ko me n-ajau kopi abia.I want to print many copies.
Bsecond verb, transitive
1in order to, with the intent to
Pi-ka pi-abui ngatene upa pi-ko me p-ajau toñaki iote.We took our tools down (from the ship) so as to build another boat.
Kupa pi-kamai monone ne pe-ko me u-botongo.We brought this chest for you to look after.
2after manipulative verbsintroduces an irrealis (subjunctive) clause
Ne-ko ne-viñi eo ni-ko me u-odo ne buka pon.I'd like to ask you to search for that book.
Ni-mo korone se ni-ko me i-tabo i-ejau etapu.with prohibitive etapuI firmly warned him not to do it again.
kome kome noun
Tnmkame
axe, tradit. made of the shell of a giant clam
Awoiu i-la kome, i-toe ñe ebele kuo, i-le i-le –Then he took his axe, and cut the hull of the canoe.
Dapa noma li-vo kangele kome li-ia kome.People in the past used to break giant clams and grind them into axes.
derivativekangele kome[mollusc for axes] giant clam
poss. classifierenaka
~ko me kape (i·)ko.me.kape construction
1+ Irrealis clause, same subjectwant, intend to; be about to
Li-te ne pwama iaero re ka li-ko me kape li-apilo toñaki.They stayed by the river, with the plan to build a ship.
Laperus ini i-te ka mata ini i-ke ne revo i-ko me kape i-odo se toñaki kape i-tabo i-ka.Lapérouse was staring out to the ocean, [lit. in order to search] searching whether the ship was coming back.
2+ Irrealis clause, different subjectwant s.o. to do s.th.
Ene awa ene ni-ko me kape l-apilo sekele.I want them to work at their gardens.
I-ko “E, eo u-ka!” I-ko me kap’ emel’ iape pon ta.noun predicateHe said “Come here!” He wanted her to become his wife.
komudo komuⁿdo komoudo noun
Tnmkadoa
Sea
boring clam, clamshell of a smaller size (approx. 12 cm)Tridacna crocea.
Kanamuko me komudo i-vio korone ne tepungo.Clamshells sit firmly in the coral rock.
Komudo, va li-vai kokoro me peini melevele.Clam shells are commonly dried in the fire, and preserved in case of a famine.
see lexical list atkanamukoclam shell
konge koŋe noun
Tnmkonge
Fauna
crayfish, shrimpAstacoidea spp.
Kape la-re tetaki me la-labu neido konge ne ero.We will set a trap to catch small shrimps in the river.
seeloubo kilolobster
kopa kopa noun
Engcopper
copper; esp. copper plate
Ka i-la i-koie ne kopa ponu i-lateli ne elene aplaka tev’ iu re.LapérouseHe took that copper sheet inland, and buried it in the clearing up over there.
~kopine (i·)kopine verb, intransitive
Lvn~tuvene
Tnm~wo'o
~ko ③ ⓐ ‘open’ + pine ‘large’
1hole, sea+wide opendeep
Iaero tilu ponu da la-kopine engasune.These two rivers are equally deep.
2sea, tide, revobe high tide
Revo i-kopine.[the sea is deep] It's high tide.
~kopu (i·)kopu verb, intransitive
move, shift o.s.
Abu u-kop' u-le!Shift yourself a little (that way)!
Ka li-kopu li-vene li-le.They decided to move (camp) uphill.
koro koro adjective
Lvnwakure
Tnmvakoura
1white
ovene korowhite heron
Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.
seebeve
2s.o.person of white skin, European
emele koroa White woman
synonymdamala
korone korone
Lvnvangaire
Tnmvakurone
Aadjective
1strong, solid, firm
Puro, li-bo vilo korone, li-ejau i-vio ne viapwene.To make an arrow, you sharpen a piece of strong wood, and insert it into a reed shaft.
synonymbeiukosolid
2rope+tight
Tero ponu, korone we i-teblebe?Is that rope tight, or slack?
antonym~teblebe
3powerful, strong, violent
Vilisao ini ngiro korone.A tornado is a powerful wind.
ero korone noun
powerful wateralcohol
ero korone akapaour alcohol
4positive sensepowerful, charismatic
Tadoe i-ka i-koie i-mako samame dapa me li-ejau makone korone.The spirits came in and began dancing with the men – which made the dances powerful.
Bpostverb
1literalresultative constructionfirmly
Le-la i-avo korone nara i-sabu.We must hook (the bait) firmly for fear it might fall off.
Kape li-odo tenuro me le-vo ñe nengele kuo korone.We'll look for a rope so we can attach firmly the elements of the canoe.
2figwith strength
~mo korone [talk strong] scold, tell s.o. off
Cverb, intransitive~korone
strive, endeavour
Nga dapa li-ko li-abu kia, ene kap’ ne-korone n-abu iune we tilu.If they want to kill us, I'll strive to kill one or two.
~kotu (i·)kotu verb, intransitive
Tnm~vatutu
1s.o.run, flee
I-kotu i-katau ero ponu i-ven' i-le.He ran along the river, all the way up.
Ka i-te ra i-le i-madau ka i-kotu mina dapa i-le i-te ne gilita ponu.He got scared and ran away from them, all the way to the hill.
2genmove swiftly in space, e.g. while riding on s.th.
Ka li-kotu ñe kuo pon, li-abu li-lui.canoe sliding on landThey rode on the canoe all the way down to the shore.
~kovi (i·)kovi verb, transitive
Lvn~kovi
1miss ‹a target›
E! Kia na ka la-kovi basakulumoe iakia na ta!sailingHey! We sailed past our island!
Ka vitoko kape i-abu tanoma ini, ia i-abu i-kovi.He nearly hit her face; but he missed.
2dodge ‹s.th.›
Ni-sali tekipa li-kovi.I shot at them but they dodged it.
Ni-ago namuko i-kovi.I speared a fish but it escaped.
~kovi metele verb-object idiom
Lvn~kovi mele
miss the moonmiss o.'s period; hence be pregnant
Emel' enone i-kovi metele.My wife is pregnant.
synonymsa pine
seemanokomenstruation
~ko wako (i·)ko wako serial verb, intransitive
say alrightsay yes, accept, consent
Li-wamabu ete iape me ai’ iape la-ko wako.They asked her parents, and they said yes.
Li-wamabu uña teliki iakapa ne Vanikoro ka dapa teliki li-ko wako.They asked the chiefs on Vanikoro, and the chiefs accepted.
Ive, a-ko wako? Kela ba-ko wako we tae?So, do you accept? The two of you, will you say yes, or no?
antonym~menerefuse
kukubo kukuᵐbo noun, relational
Lvnbilimie
Tnmmañe
crustaceanthinner legs ‹of crab+›
kukubo loubocrab legs
seeaele(human) leg
kula1 kula
Lvnkula
Tnmkule
Aadjective
Cf. kula ②, kulaña ‘part, portion’
semantically pluralother, different
Li-bei ñe uie bamele ka uie vilo kula.They cover [the oven] with philodendron, and other leaves.
Dapa iakapa noma li-ovei pe li-pwalau: li-katau kanimoro li-le ne basakulumoe kula.Our ancestors used to practice navigation: they would follow the stars, and reach other islands.
MorphologyConstitutes the plural counterpart of iote ‘[Singular] other, different’.
derivativeengakulavarious
Bquantifier
Grammar
a few, some
Na uo kula kula ka pi-ae.following a nounThese are a few yams we just dug out.
Program kula idi li-la moli.Some software programs are free.
Kula ka i-ka se vono Lale, Ngama, Vono.used absolutelySome (people) had moved to the areas of Lale, Ngama and Vono.
I-ngago wako, i-la puro kula i-vio ne waluko.Once he'd strung [his bow], he tied a few arrows around his hip.
kula… kula… construction
some… some…the ones… the others…
Kula pe li-vio ne teviri li-ioi; ka kula i-vio i-katei ne teviumu.dragging a canoe on landThose who are standing by the stern, they will push; the others stand at the prow, and pull.
Dapa kula ka li-bu ne revo, dapa kula li-wowo li-koie ne kulumoe.following pronoun dapaSome of them died in the sea, some others swam till they reached the island.
kula2 kula
Anoun
half
Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
Vilisao i-arevo toñaki pon, kula tilu na.The tornado broke up the ship into two halves.
Bnoun, relational
half, portion of ‹s.th.›
kula none 'nakaa portion of my food; my leftovers
main entrykulaña
kulaña kulaɲa kula noun, relational
half of ‹s.th.›
Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
kulaña metele noun
half moonsemi-circle
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
kuledi kuleⁿdi adjective
Lvnvekurioko
Tnmvakuri
1s.th.short in length
Enga ini susuko Stanley, ia kupa pi-kila enga ini kuledi piko Stan.His real name is Stanley, but we shorten it to Stan.
antonymbiouro
2s.o., s.th.short in height
iutego kuledi peini tokolishorter stilts for the floor structure
Basavono pon, ini mamote kuledi.At that time, she was still short (in size).
3story, activity+short in duration, brief
Ponu kava pon, piene peini kuledi nga pon.conclusion of a storyAnd so, the story of kava is just a short one like that.
kulevelu kulevelu noun
Lvnkio
Tnmtokila
Birds
fowl, poultry, chicken
kulevelu mwalikote[male fowl] rooster
via kuleveluchicken feather
Kulevelu ka i-ve waluluo tete.The fowl has laid three eggs.
anes kuleveluchicken meat
neido kulevelu noun
child of fowlchick
kuli kuli noun
Lvnkuli
Tnmkuli
Polynesiankuli
dog
Kuli i-ou.A dog is barking.
kulumoe kulumoe noun
Lvnkulamoe
Tnmkulama
(?) kula ‘several’ + moe ‘house’
inhabited place
seetemakaplace
1genhamlet, village
Da-tilu pe Teanu. Kulumoe iada Aneve.They were from Teanu island; their village was Aneve.
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Domesticated pigs are fed in the village, but wild pigs wander about in the forest.
2rarearea, zone within an island, not necessarily inhabited
kulumoe peini sekelean area for garden
seevonodistrict
3island
Waiero i-vene ne vono i-katau ngiro Palapu.The waves went up to the dry land, following the north wind Palapu.
Kulumoe Iura, kulumoe i-wene tev’ iu.The islands of (north) Vanuatu are located southeast [of Vanikoro].
synonymbasakulumoe
contrasts withtemotu
derivativekulumoe iakapaour island (Vanikoro)
4country
Ini i-te Franis, ia ebele kulumoe iape Japan.She lives in France, but she is actually from [lit. her genuine country is] Japan.
5rarethe world
ne tevie kulumoethe other side of the world
synonymlovia vono
synonymmarama
kumara kumara noun
Flora
sweet potatoIpomoea batatas.
Ni-toe longe pe le-tau kumara.I'm cutting firewood to cook the sweet potatoes.
synonymrua kasule
kunini kunini noun
Engquinine
1quinine: a medicine against malaria
2hencemedical tablet
kunini peini basa idi i-melimedicine against headaches
kuo kuo noun
Lvnnawe
Tnmgoia
(?) POc*wagaŋ
Canoes (kuo) of Vanikoro island.
Canoes and boatskuo
kuo canoe, boat
~bo ② ; ~toe cut, make ‹canoe›
~katei drag ‹canoe› on land
~elele tow ‹canoe› on water
~to ③ pole ‹canoe› on water
~wai paddle ‹canoe›
~vesu bavede sail ‹canoe›
~pwalau travel by sea
ebele kuo body, hull
noma ① ⓐ▻② ; basa ①▻⑤ prow
menuko ①▻③ ; teviumu prow
teviri stern
wele paddle
tiaume canoe notch
demene outrigger
langasuo outrigger rail
iuro▻② mast
vava boom
bavede ① sail
tetaula anchor
tone ① pole
tepuke large sailing canoe
tepakare double-hulled canoe
toñaki large ship
Naut
1canoe, esp. traditional canoe made of a single trunk, with no outrigger
nengele kuothe elements of a canoe
I-bo kuo awoiu, i-ae lema.Once he had cut out the canoe, he began to hollow out its inner part.
Kuo pine ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.The huge canoe was sliding down (on the rollers).
Ni-wowo revo i-ke mina lema kuo.I'm bailing out the (sea) water from inside the canoe.
Li-elele kuo i-katau revo.They dragged the boat along the coast.
2genboat, ship, from other cultures
Tepuke ponu, kuo pine; moe aplaka pon, ne pongo kuo pon.The ‘tepuke’ ship is a large canoe; it has a small cabin, on top of the ship.
kuo ie damala[canoe of Westerners] a modern ship
synonymtoñakilarge ship
Flora
3“canoe tree”: k.o. tree (unidentified), traditionally chosen for making canoes – hence its name
Dapa noma vana li-bo kuo ne ngogoro, kape le-toe oie kuo. Li-bo oie kuo pe li-ko wako pe le-bo kiane, ka iote, mimione.When our ancestors went to cut a canoe in the bush, they would chop down a “canoe tree”. They chose that tree because it can be carved fast, and because its wood is light.
kupa kupa personal pronoun
Lvngamitu
Tnmgamuto
Grammar
we, i.e. me and them: personal pronoun for 1st person exclusive plural
U-ka u-samame kupa!danceCome join us!
Li-ka na, teve kupa na, basakulumoe iupa na.They came here, towards us, on our island.
Kupa na kupa mwaliko tae. Ka kaipa mwaliko na ia kupa na ngatene nga na.We are not human. You people are human, but we are creatures like this.
kwa- kʷa numeral
Lvnuka
Tnmulue
numeral prefix for tens
kwa-tilutwenty
kwa-tethirty
kwa-teva tamana tuaforty eight
seeuluko
kwangele kʷaŋele noun
Birds
Great crested ternSterna bergii.
kwate kʷate numeral
Lvnuka-telu
Tnmulue-ao
kwa- + -te ‘three’
three tensthirty
Aeve i-etengi kwate i-da tilu-tae.It’s 8:30 [lit. the sun is ringing 30 over 8]
see lexical list attivi
kwa-teva kʷateva numeral
Lvnuka-tava
Tnmulue-ava
kwa- + teva ‘four’
four tensforty
kwa-teva tamana tuafourty eight
kwa-tilu kʷatilu numeral
kwa- + tilu ‘two’
twenty
kwa-tilu tamana tilu-taetwenty eight
kwa-tilu-tae kʷatilutae numeral
kwa- + tilu-tae ‘eight’
eighty
Ebieve 'none kwa-tilu-tae tamana tili.I am eighty-five years old.