va fa Tense Aspect Mood marker
Habitual aspect
main entryvana
~vagasi (i·)vaᵑgasi
Lvn~pagaka
Tnm~apeto
Averb, transitive
1+locationgo as far as ‹specific location›, reach
U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka, u-vagasi pongo gilita.Just follow the road a little further up, and you'll reach the top of the hill.
2reach, come to meet ‹s.o.›; meet
Keba kape ba-vagas' eo Ostrelia.We will come to (visit) you in Australia.
Mamote ni-vagasi Ezzy tae.I haven't met Ezzy yet.
3sickness+affect ‹s.o.›
Emel' enone malaria i-vagasi.My wife has malaria. [lit. malaria has caught her]
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after motion vbgo and reach ‹somewhere›; hence all the way to ‹a place›
Li-koioi li-su buluko ka li-koie li-vagasi takoie.They lit torchlights and led them in, until they reached (the village) inland.
Ero i-pu i-abu i-vagasi revo.The river flows down to the sea.
Waiero i-vene ne kulumoe i-vagasi uña moe.The waves went up on dry land, reaching the houses.
2+time(do) until ‹specific moment›
Ba-mako ra i-vagasi vono i-sodo.You danced together until dawn!
Voko i-te ponu ra ka i-vagasi nanana.The stone has been there until this day.
Synt.Impersonal construction, always with 3s prefix i-.
synonymra
vagumia faᵑgumia noun, relational
POc*kumichin, beard
Anatomy
beard
U-di vagumia eo ko!Shave your beard!
~vai (i·)vai verb, transitive
Lvn~lube
Tnm~oba
bake ‹food›, cook in the stone oven (awene)
Li-vai uobake yams
Le-vai vioe ne awene.We bake taro in the stone oven.
Komoudo, va li-vai kokoro me peini melevele.Clam shells are commonly dried in the fire, and preserved in case of a famine.
vakaboro1 fakaᵐboro noun
Birds
1swiftlet; espec. White-rumped SwiftletAerodramus spodiopygius.
2figairplane
Ai-ava iu ñe vakaboro?Did you fly with a plane?
vakaboro2 fakaᵐboro noun
Flora
k.o. creeper, unidentified
Vakasiu locative
(?) Tikopiante FakatiuPPn*faka-tiunorthwest wind
Naut
Southwesterly wind, blowing between Tokolau and Laki
see lexical list atngiro
~valangia (i·)valaŋia verb, transitive
Lvn~valaña
Tnm~valaña
carry ‹burden› on o.'s shoulder using a stick
Pi-valangia nganae aipa ponu?What are you guys carrying (on your sticks)?
see lexical list at~labu
vana fana van va Tense Aspect Mood marker
Tnmvana
Grammar
1clause-initial positiongnomic aspect, in definitions or generic statements
Dapa tadoe va li-somol' idi, ka li-e idi.Spirits are dangerous, they are cannibals.
2clause-initial positionHabitual aspect, in past or present contexts
Va li-tabulu dapa ne ole.children playingThey roll in the sand.
Vana li-atevo eo.They keep talking about you.
Noma vana uña toñaki van li-ka li-punuo ñe idi li-lui.In the olden days, ships used to come and kidnap people to carry them away.
Laperusi vana i-moloe i-si sivene ne nom’ ole tetake ne.Lapérouse had the habit of walking around, making some drawings on that beach over there.
3rareiterative meaningdo s.th. repeatedly
Dapa ne da ka li-bu awoiu. Vana ka li-tavea li-koie li-sai i-katau temaka ponu.All their relatives died instantly. Their [bodies] were floating, washing ashore (one after the other), all along the beach.
seei-wene i-wenecontinually
Vanikoro vanikoro placename
Geo
Vanikoro: name of a group of islands, incl. the main islands Banie and Teanu
Laperus i-ka tev' kiapa ne kulumoe iakapa Vanikoro.Lapérouse came among us, in our island of Vanikoro.
vangana faŋana noun
glow, light
vangana bulukothe glow of the lamp
vangana aevesun light
vangana kanimorolight of the stars
vao fao
Lvnvao
Tnmva
Aadjective
1animalwild (opp. tame)
Vao, we pe li-womanga?Is it wild, or tame?
2plantwild, growing in the bush (opp. cultivated)
vongoro vaowild almonds
matamulue vao wild variety of matamulue plant
Bnoun
Fauna
pig; espec. wild pigSus scrofa.
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Poi pigs are fed in the village, but fao pigs wander about in the forest.
contrasts withpwoidomesticated pig
variale fariale noun
Mythology
a heathen altar, used for offerings to ancient gods (tadoe)
vava fafa noun
boom: wooden element of a canoe, attached to the mast (iuro), holding the sail (bavede)
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
~ve1 (i·)ve verb, intransitive
Lvn~wo
Tnm~ja
interrogative verb
📘 Contrary to ~mikae* ‘do what’ and ~kae* ‘do how’ which both take a personal subject, ~ve always takes a (semantically impersonal) 3sg subject i-. The surface form is therefore always ive (for i-ve).
main entryive
~ve2 (i·)ve
Lvn~ve
Tnm~vi
Averb, intransitive
used absolutelygive birth
Ka i-ve?birth expectedHas she given birth already?
Bverb, transitive
1female animal, womanlay ‹egg›, give birth to ‹offspring›
Kulevelu ponu i-ovei pe i-ve waluluo ini moro abia na.This hen is able to lay eggs every day.
Ne metele tilu-tae kape i-ve menu.She will give birth in August.
Emele i-te ne kulumoe, pe men’ iape mamote i-ve.The woman was staying in the village, as she had just given birth [lit. she was still giving birth to her child]
2man, womanbeget ‹s.o.›, be parent of
Da ka lai-ve menu?Do they already have a child?
Mwaliko pe emele da mwalik’ iape lai-ve enga ini Amo Lupo.The boy who was born to that couple [lit. whom the woman and her man begat] was named Amo Lupo.
Emele iote i-ve ini, ka emele iote i-ve ene, da tieli.The woman who gave birth to him, and the one who gave birth to me, they were sisters.
3with impersonal subject li-3, equivalent to a passives.o.be born
Li-ve eo vele?Where were you born? [lit. where did they beget you]
Li-pei idi pe moro pe li-ve eo ene!Happy birthday! [lit. we rejoice at the day when you were born]
vebe feᵐbe noun
Flora
cutnut, bush nut (Lecythidaceae)Barringtonia edulis.
li-ta vebesplit a ‘cutnut’
Dapa pe li-anu kava, li-e vebe ñe ponu, me kape ije dapa memia etapu.Kava drinkers eat cutnut right after it, to take away the bitter taste.
vebe mata-diro noun
arrow-tip vebek.o. cutnut, whose elongated fruit reminds of an arrow tip
vede feⁿde noun
POc*padran
Flora
k.o. pandanus, the leaves of which cannot be woven (vs kie ~ woubo)Pandanus spp.
Lekele i-nge wa vede.Flying-foxes chew fruits of pandanus.
~vei (i·)vei verb, transitive
Tnm~vae
Weaving a coconut mat (li-vei mawene).
POc*patuRtie, plait, weave (mats, baskets +)
weave ‹s.th.›
li-vei beteweave a mat
Li-vei (uie) kie / (uie) woubo.weave pandanus leaves
Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-loko uie woubo pe le-vei bavede peini.People before used to weave sails out of pandanus leaves.
veiebe fejeᵐbe noun
Flora
k.o. creeperMerremia peltata.
veiko feiko adjective
Lvnveika
Tnmveika
wild
vekai fekai noun
Food
k.o. pudding made of taros (jebute) and almonds (vongoro), always presented in a long shape, and served on long Heliconia leaves (lukilo vekai) during public celebrations
Li-apilo vekai wamtaka, biouro iape nga ne!They made small puddings, but still they were as long as this!
seemama2
vele fele interrogative
Lvnmene
Tnmvane
where
Okoro 'naka pon i-wene vele?So where's my knife?
Uña ngatene pon na pe vele?Where do those things come from?
Mata ini i-ke me i-romo kape i-mako vele, ña i-tabau.reported speech[The dancer] looks through [the holes] so he can see where he's dancing, to avoid tripping up.
velebie feleᵐbie noun
POc*Rabiastarch
Food
edible starch
velebie peini maniokacassava starch
Velebie peini otovo, peini melevele pine.Sago starch is good in case of a major famine.
~velei felei verb, intransitive
Lvn~pelei
Tnm~vili
crooked
Poi ponu, ije ka i-ke biouro ka i-velei i-vene.This pig has had its teeth grow long, and bend upwards.
antonymsusuko
velesebe feleseᵐbe noun
mid-season, middle of the year
Lai-te Tetevo ra ra ra ra – ka i-le ne velesebe.So they waited on Utupua, on and on and on — till they reached the middle season.
velia felia adjective
Lvnvelia
Tnmvelia
~vene (i·)vene verb, intransitive
Lvn~vene, ~ne
Tnm~vano
1go up, rise
Aeve ka i-vene.The sun has risen in the sky.
Matiki Moro ka i-vene.The morning star had risen (in the sky).
2esphumclimb
Li-vene ne kuo iadapa.They climbed aboard their canoe.
Ka i-le i-vene ne avie i-bi.He climbed on the apple tree and picked an apple.
3figextend upwards
Moe pon i-ven' iu tamwase.That building goes very high up.
Webwe i-vene i-wen' ne ma dapa.dancersThey were wearing armbands up their arms. [lit. armbands were going up on their arms]
4geocentric coordinatesgo upwindtravel east or south
Kape ne-ven' ne-le ne kulumoe.I'll travel east [lit. up] to the island (Vanikoro).
derivativetetaveneup, southeast
antonym~abu2A3
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after intransitive verb(move+) up, upwards
U-katau anoko u-vene u-le amjaka, u-vagasi pongo gilita.Follow the path upwards a little bit, and you'll reach the top of the hill.
Ka li-kopu li-vene li-le.They decided to move (camp) uphill.
Jebute i-karau i-vene awoiu, i-tuku ini i-abu.When your taro has finished growing up, it will bend itself down.
Poi ponu, ije ka i-ke biouro ka i-velei i-vene.This pig has had its teeth grow long, and bend upwards.
Apali i-maili i-ven' i-ka.The child grew up.
2after transitive verb(take, move s.th.) up
Li-katei bavede i-vene ne iuro, peini me le-vesu i-ke i-le.They hoisted the sail up the mast, so they could sail away.
~venei (i·)venei verb, transitive
~vene ‘go up’
1take s.th. upwards
Ni-venei ero ne mwoe.I took some water up to my house.
see lexical list at~lui
see~vesuerect
2set up, create
Ebel' ini me, pe a-venei network na.It's a great thing that you set up this network.
see~ejaucreate
vengela feŋela adjective
Lvnwakure
Tnmvakoura
1clean
antonymsukurodirty
2clear
Piene iono vengela tamwase.Your explanations are extremely clear.
antonymdoneblurry
vese fese noun, relational
Tnmvase
Flora
1plantseed
vese balebreadfruit seed
seemobo2large seed, stone
2small part, element: used in various compounds
vese uropiece of charcoal
seeaña
vese ma noun
Anatomy
element of armelbow
main entryvesema
vese piene noun
bits of speechword
main entryvesepiene
vesema fesema noun, relational
Tnmvasme
vese ‘element’ + ma1 ‘arm’
Anatomy
elbow
vesepiene fesepiene noun
seed of speechword
Piene adapa Teanu, ia vesepiene pe noma.This is Teanu language, but with some archaic words.
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.polysemyIt is the same word, but with two distinct meanings.
seepienespeech
vesevelae fesefelae noun
Cf. vese
Sea
cone shellConus spp.
Dapa Iura li-la vesevelae li-iu me viko.People in Vanuatu thread cone shells into shellmoney.
synonymaero we anive
~vesu (i·)vesu
Averb, transitive
Cf. (?) ~vene ‘go up’
1erect, put up, stand up ‹s.th.› vertically
Li-vesu wolowoloerect a cross
Li-vesu blateno i-vio.They erected the ritual pole.
Li-vesu moe.erect a house
Li-nabe na ini wako, li-vesu iuro.Once we've marked the site (of the house), we stand up the pillars.
see~vo2
see~woi
~vesu bavede phrasal verb
hoist the sailsail, go sailing, travel on sailing boat
Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-vesu bavede.Our ancestors used to sail. [lit. to hoist the sail]
Basavono na ka tae, ka li-vesu bavede ñe kuo nga noma tae.Nowadays it's over: people don't sail any more like they used to.
synonym~pwalau
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
2perform (?) ‹dances+›
I-ko kape le-vesu makone, ngapiene.He wanted people to perform dances, to hold a dancing festival.
Bverb, intransitive
1s.th.rise, go up
Basa i-abu i-ka mijaka, i-ka i-vesu.The hill goes down a little bit, and then rises again.
2s.o.sail
Nga ne tomoro nga le-romo ngiro wako, le-vesu i-katau.If they found the wind to be fine, they would sail along.
~vete (i·)vete verb, transitive
Lvn~vele
Tnm~wo, ~po
1+object NP or direct speechutter, say, declare ‹s.th.›
Uk' one tilu, kape ne-vete enga da metae.My in-laws, I can't say their names out loud.
Pi’ one i-vete tae.My grandfather never told me.
Pon i-vete (i-ko) “Wako!”So he said “That's fine!”
Some speech verbs~vete
~vete say, mention
~vete piene talk, speak
~mo talk, speak
~atevo tell s.th.
~viñi tell s.o.
~wasi show s.o.
~waivo teach s.o.
~kila call
~kilase address s.o.
~ko2 say, think
~vodo think
2mention ‹s.o., s.th.›, talk about
Na tepakola pe li-vete na?Is this the giant whom people keep talking about?
Iote pe eo a-vete ponu, i-wene ne moe 'none.The one you were mentioning is in my home.
Ka ni-mui pe ni-vete temotu aplaka.I forgot to mention the small islet.
3word+mean ‹s.th.›
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.polysemyIt is the same word, but with two distinct meanings. [lit. it says two things]
4give away ‹s.o.›, denounce publicly
U-vet' ene etapu!Don't give me away!
5chiefcall, convene ‹event, meeting+›
Teliki iadapa i-vete ngapiene.The chief proclaimed the opening of the Festival.
~vete piene (i·)vete piene phrasal verb
Lvn~vele mwamwane
Tnm~po puiene
1say wordstalk, speak, communicate
Li-vet' piene ñe ma dapa.They talk with their hands.
Ini i-vete piene wako se idi abia.She talks easily to everybody.
synonym~mo
2talk about (s.th., ñe), mention
Ngatene pon etapu tamwase pe li-vet' pien' ñi.This topic is very delicate to talk about.
3speak (a language, ñe)
Ini i-ovei pe i-vete piene ñe piene adapa Teanu.He can speak Teanu.
Li-vete piene ñi i-aiae, ia li-lengi wako.They speak (that language) with difficulty, but they understand it well.
4grouptalk together, discuss
La-vet' piene lai-ovili.They've been talking for too long.
Awis pine pe li-wapio kiapa li-vet' piene.Thank you for having gathered together to talk.
synonym~votei
veve feve noun
Flora
1naturalvine, liana; bark of hibiscus with the elongated shape of a vine
li-katei vevepull a vine (in the bush)
Li-la tero li-dai ñe uie luro.They take a liana and wrap it with coconut leaves.
synonymtero
synonymasoe
2manmaderope, string, put to various uses
Kape li-au, li-ngago iunubo iune iune ñe veve.They will wrap [the food], and fasten every parcel using rope.
synonymterowoven rope
vewo fewo noun
Flora
Polynesian chestnutInocarpus fagifer.
ne utele vewo pine ponuat the base of that big chestnut tree over there
~vi1 (i·)vi verb, transitive
1wind, s.o.blow gently onto ‹s.th., s.o.›
Ngiro i-vi idi.The wind is blowing gently on us (like a breeze).
see~akablow strongly
Music
2espblow into ‹wind instrument+› to play music
Li-vi jokoro.They're playing [bamboo] panpipes.
jokoro pe li-vi[bamboo that is blown into] flute, panpipe
see~si3blow ‹conch›
~vi2 (i·)vi verb, transitive
Lvn~vi
1attach, tie ‹leaves› onto s.th.
Uie lumobo po i-vi ponu, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei i-ioi i-le ponu.Once he had tied the leaves (around the stone), he began to swing it, swing, swing, swing, till he threw it far away.
2henceattach ‹a prohibition, embodied by a taboo-leaf nuduro22› (to s.th., ñe) in order to reserve it for oneself
Dapa li-vi nuduro se oie buioe me adapa ñoko.They tied a taboo-leaf to the areca tree, to reserve the nuts for themselves.
~vi nuduro phrasal verb
attach a taboo-leafperform a ritual of engagement (to a girl: se) for oneself, or for o.'s son
Mwatagete iote ka i-vi nuduro se.She's already engaged to someone. [lit. A boy has already put up a taboo on her]
synonym~nabe4
synonym~teli mama
via1 fia noun, relational
Lvnuie
Tnmvele
POc*pulu
Anatomy
1archhair
via inihis hair
derivativeviaviabody hair
2birdfeather
li-au via kulevelupluck children feathers
Mamdeuko po via moloe.The honeyeater has red feathers.
Via ukaia ini biouro.It has long tail feathers.
via2 fia noun
Lvnawia
Tnmve
Techniques
handle ‹of tool›
Okoro pon, via i-mamakoe.That knife has a broken handle.
Ka i-wene peini u-totoñe via kome, via wele, tekumete, nga pon.The stingray sander (bele voro) can be used for sanding axe handles, paddles, wooden dishes, and so on.
~via3 (i·)via verb, intransitive
1clash, fight
Da la-via ñe tanoe.They fought over a land dispute.
2engage in war
Dapa noma li-via.Our ancestors used to engage in wars.
Noma, dapa Lovono li-ovei pe li-via samame dapa Tawo.The Lovono tribe used to wage war against the Tetawo tribe.
seemevirowar
viabasa fiaᵐbasa vabasa noun, relational
Lvnuiebasa
Tnmvel(e)base
Hairviabasa
viavia body hair
vabasa ; viabasa headhair
moloe1 red, blond
bworobworo dark
kiñe viabasa long head hair
ero1B long falling hair
pwelele soft
ome frizzy
~buibu curly
~bubu braid
Anatomy
headhair
Ini i-bubu viabasa.She braids her hair.
Viabasa emele damala ponu pwelele.That white woman has soft hair.
Dapa li-loko mana vilo i-vio ne viabasa dapa.People put flowers in their hair.
Viabasa idi bworo, bworobworo ñoko tae, i-ovei pe moloe.Melanesian people’s hair is not always black, it can also be blond.
~viaene verb, transitive
hit, trample+
main entry~viane
~viane (i·)viane ~viaene verb, transitive
Lvn~piaine
Tnm~vini
1s.o.kick, touch ‹s.th.› with o.'s feet; step on ‹s.th.›
Temabete me mawene, li-garei pe daviñevi li-viane.Women are forbidden from stepping on mats or semi-mats.
2esps.o.hit ‹s.th.› with o.'s feet noisily or violently: trample, stomp
Li-viane tepapa me aña ini.They jump on the (dancing) boards for the sound it makes.
3s.o.stumble upon ‹s.th.› with o.'s feet; hence slip, fall
Netebe pon, nara u-viane!This is mud here, make sure you don't stumble!
synonym~tabau
4s.th.trip ‹s.o.› up
Vilo i-viane ale ene.[a plant hit my foot] I banged my foot on a tree.
5figfood plantsbe so plentiful as to trip ‹their owner› up in their garden. Proverbial saying, referring to s.o.'s economic prosperity
Utele i-vian' eo?proverbialAre you so prosperous? [lit. do roots trip you up?]
A-viñi dapa a-ko le-ka pe i-vian' eo?ellipticalYou invited them (for a meal): is it because you are rich? [lit. because it trips you up]
📘 The grammatical subject, usually utele ‘root, plant’, is sometimes omitted.
6s.th.hit ‹s.o.›, touch, esp. with some physical impact
7figevent+reach ‹a certain moment›; last ‹a certain time›
I-viane bwogo tili.(the festival) reached the fifth day.
8event+become suddenly known to ‹s.o.›, with some emotional impact; hence affect, disturb, move, catch by surprise
Buro i-viane dapa ka li-le.[a song hit them as they went] As they walked, they were suddenly moved by a (beautiful) song.
9freqawa ‘neck > will’my desire hits s.th.like ‹s.o., s.th.›; want, desire ‹s.o., s.th.›
Awa ene i-viaene imaluo iape.I like her character.
Awa ene i-viane tamwase!I absolutely love it!
derivativeawa ~viane
10foll. by ~ko2awa ‘neck > will’want to do s.th.; want that
Awa kupa i-viane pi-ko u-le u-romo tadoe akapa.[our neck/will hits that you go see…] We'd like you to go and meet our god.
11rares.o.want, desire
mwaliko pe i-viane da-viñevi tamwasea man who loves women too much
viapwene fiapʷene noun
Flora
1k.o. reedMiscanthus floridulus.
Etym.‘large feathers’ (?)
2metonshaft of an arrow (puro), tradit. made of reed
Puro, li-bo vilo korone, li-ejau i-vio ne viapwene.To make an arrow, you sharpen a piece of strong wood, and insert it into a reed shaft.
viavia fiafia noun
Lvnuieuie
Tnmvelevele
Redup. via1
Anatomy
1hair, viewed as numerous
Viavia ebele i-paka.He is very hairy.
2plumage
Viavia ini ukiliro.Its plumage is quite colourful.
Dapa Niteni li-ejau viko ñe viavia mamdeuko.The people of Santa Cruz make money using feathers of the Myzomela honeyeater.
seevia12feather
vidiviko fiⁿdifiko vidiko noun, relational
Lvnvidika
Tnmvadivika
Anatomy
humfinger; toe
Loubo iote i-ke vidiviko ne ale ene.I had one of my toes bitten by a crab!
vidonge fiⁿdoŋe noun
Sea
Spider shellLambis lambis.
vijele fiᶮɟele noun
container for a liquid: bottle, jerrycan
U-wabe vijele enone ñe kerosin.Fill up my jerrycan with kerosene.
seejokoro3bamboo container
Viji fiᶮɟi locative
Geo
Fiji
Kava ponu, ña kape le-vodo li-ko bwara pe li-la Viji, o Vanuatu.As for kava, you shouldn't believe that it came to us from Fiji or Vanuatu.
viko fiko noun
Lvnveika
Tnmveika
Anthropology
1money, of the customary kind: in Vanikoro shell money, made of cowrie shells
Dapa Niteni li-ejau viko ñe viavia mamdeuko.The people of Santa Cruz make money using feathers of the Myzomela honeyeater.
Dapa noma Banie na li-ejau viko ñe mata aero – aero we anive.Our ancestors here in Vanikoro used to create money using shells, cone shells.
Ka ponu li-la viko, li-lui li-lateli ne moe ma tadoe.They took the ritual money, and put it down in the gods’ lair.
seesavenemat money
Traditional shell moneyViko pe noma
Li-loko aero we anive, li-si kangele i-ke mina. Li-la voko waboro li-ia aero ñei wablubu, ka li-ejau viko ñei.
You collect cone shells, cut out the mollusc from it. Then using black stone, you file those shells into a round shape. That's how you made traditional money.
Modernity
2money, of the modern kind; coins, treasure
Ni-romo viko i-aiae teve ene.Money is an issue for me.
Viko i-nene.The treasure was shining.
3price
Viko peini kape tivi?How much will it cost? [its money will (be) how much?]
Anthropology
4customfine, to be paid in order to repair o.'s mistakes
Ka a-romo leka! Kape u-re viko!You had eye contact with your cousin! You will have to pay a fine!
see~subeerr, do wrong
vili1 fili noun
Lvnvili
Tnmvili
Birds
1Palm LorikeetCharmosyna palmarum.
Birds
2Rainbow LorikeetTrichoglossus haematodus.
~vili2 (i·)vili verb, transitive
POc*piritwist
squeeze, press ‹s.th.›
U-la manave awoiu u-vili.kavaYou take a piece of coconut fibre, and squeeze (the kava).
Li-wete kava awoiu ka li-vili; kape le-wabe le-mini dapa po li-anu kava ne Toplau.After grinding the kava, they squeezed it; so they filled up [a bowl] and gave it to the kava drinkers in the men's house.
Vilimoe filimoe placename
Geo
Filimoe: an ancient islet – now submerged – on the west coast of Banie island, near Lale
Li-te li-wamu dapa li-te ne temotu ne Vilimoe ponu.Lapérouse sailorsThey went to hide in the islet of Filimoe over there.
vilisa filisa noun, relational
1svilisa ene2svilisa eo
s.o.clothes, esp. for the upper body; dancing gear
vilisa enemy clothes
Li-loko vilisa dapa i-ven’ ne dapa.They put on their dancing gear.
see lexical list atnamolo
vilisao filisao vilsao
Lvnvisipure
Anoun
tornado
Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.
Vilisao i-ka i-arevo toñaki pon kula tilu na.The tornado split the ship into two halves.
seeaponohurricane
Bproper nounVilisao
LvnVisipure
TnmVilisao
Mythology
Filisao: the god of hurricanes and tornados
Tadoe adapa pon, enga ini Vilisao.That god of theirs was called Filisao ‘Tornado’.
vilitoe filitoe noun
Flora
k.o. grass (unidentified) with white flowers, which dancers commonly stick onto their hair as an ornament
Vilitoe, ini abo mana koro.'Filitoe' is a kind of grass with white flowers.
Webwe i-vene i-wen' ne ma dapa; loko i-vio ne ma dapa; vilitoe i-vio ne viabasa dapa.dancersThey had armbands on their arms, scented leaves on their armbands; and filitoe flowers in their hair.
vilo filo noun
Lvnkuile
Tnmveila
Plants and treesvilo
vilo plant, tree, wood, stick
wowo1 top ‹of tree›
oie trunk, bole ‹of tree›
utele base ‹of tree›, roots
kara root
ela1 branch
mengela stick
mana flower
delesa stem
uie leaf
vese seed
wa1 fruit
bele bark
~do1 ; ~teli2 plant ‹tree+›
~karau ‹tree› grow
~toe cut, chop ‹tree›
~bo2 carve ‹wood›
Flora
1genplant: generic name for all plants, when a particular species name is not specified
vilo pe li-e[a plant that one eats] an edible plant
vilo peini melevele ‘famine food’
A-rom, na vilo engaiote! Vilo pon i-vio teve kiapa tae.Look at this strange plant! We don't have it in our island.
2esptree
Vilo iote pine i-sabu ne anoko.There's a large tree felled on the road.
bele vilo tree bark → tapa
3wood
Puro, li-bo vilo korone.To make an arrow, you sharpen a piece of strong wood.
Li-bi vilo li-la ñe amuko.They carved some wood and applied seaweed varnish to it.
4piece of wood, stick
Li-dai ñe vilo li-asai botongo.We wrap it around a stick and tie it with a stitch [lit. stitch cover].
Li-ia iawo ñe vilo.We light fire with (pieces of) wood.
synonymmengela
~vilu (i·)vilu verb, intransitive
Lvn~lavao
Tnm~au
1walk
Ka i-vilu i-le.toddlerHe can walk already.
Kape ne-vilu ne-le ne basa re.I'll be walking towards that mountain over there.
Temaka ponu tamwaliko, u-vilu ene bwogo etapu!Those places are dangerous, don't walk around there at night!
Wandering aroundli-vilu ngapwae
~vilu walk; travel, wander
~le go
~ka come
~tatale walk
~moloe2 walk around
~kotu run
~ava fly
~wowo2 swim
~wai1 paddle
~vesu bavede sail
~pwalau travel by sea
2genmove, wander, travel
kanimoro pe i-vilushooting star
Kape le-vilu ñe kuo, le-to, we le-vesu bavede ñi nga ponu.They can travel on a canoe, whether by poling around, or sailing.
Pe nanana ka li-vilu ne toñaki ie damala.Nowadays, people travel on Western-style ships.
vinoe finoe noun
Flora
k.o. tree, unidentified
viñaviña fiɲafiɲa adjective
noisy
Viñaviña 'tapu!Don't make noise! (Keep quiet)
antonym~te puna … taekeep quiet
viñe fiɲe
Lvnviñe
Tnmvagela
Anoun, relational
1hard shell of ‹animal+›
viñe anueleturtle shell
viñe anuele noun
turtle shell, often cut into various ornaments
viñe basa noun, relational
Anatomy
man+head shellskull, cranium
Li-loko viñe basa dapa li-bei ñe voko.They collected their skulls, and buried them under stones.
2shell, husk of ‹nut+›
viñe buioe (aidi)husk of an areca nut (chewed by s.o.)
3hard shell used as a container; hence container
viñe teipua coconut shell (used as a container, e.g. to drink kava)
viñe teipu pe li-apinu enea coconut cup used in cooking
Badjective
empty
antonym~lipu
viñevi fiɲevi noun
POc*pinewoman
women: plural of emele ‘woman’
MorphologyAlmost always preceded by plural clitic da=.
main entrydaviñevi
~viñi (i·)viɲi verb, transitive
Lvn~puñi
Tnm~puña
1tell ‹s.o.› (about s.th., ñe)
Ne-viñ’ eo?Shall I tell you?
U-viñi etapu!Don't tell her!
Ne-ko ne-viñ’ eo ñe piene motoro.I'd like to tell you about an important issue.
Awa ene motoro ñe piene pe a-viñ’ ene.I give a lot of consideration to your words. [lt. the words you tell me]
synonym~vetesay
2foll. by ~ko2Bsay to ‹s.o.›, declare, ask: introduces reported speech
Ka i-viñ’ emel’ iape i-ko: “U-wai i-ka!”He said to his wife (saying) “Paddle this way!”
Ka dapa li-viñi li-ko “U-madau ’tapu.”They told her “Don't be afraid.”
~vio fio
Lvn~pia
Tnm~veo
Averb, intransitive
1s.o.stand, be standing somewhere
Dapa kula li-vio li-dadai mane.Some men were standing around the dancing area.
Kula pe li-vio ne teviri li-ioi; ka kula i-vio i-katei ne teviumu.dragging a canoe on landThose who are standing by the stern, they will push; the others stand at the prow, and pull.
2s.th.be positioned somewhere, espec. in an upright position
Bavede i-vio ne menuko.The sail stands on the prow.
Aero iupa i-vio vitoko na.Our pig pen is very close this way.
Li-akawo tabuluburi ne adie idi, puro i-vio ene.You hang a quiver on your shoulder, with arrows [standing] inside.
Loko i-vio ne ma dapa; vilitoe i-vio ne viabasa dapa.dancersThey had scented leaves stuck [lit. standing] on their armbands; and white flowers in their hair.
3s.o., s.th.stand firmly, be stable or steady
U-vio beiuko na u-tabau!in a treeStand firmly, don't fall down!
Ka li-wabeiu ñe moboro teva, me blateno i-vio, susuko, ne to.They used four rattan canes as props, so the pole would stand firmly in the middle.
Kanamuko me komudo i-vio korone ne tepungo.Clamshells sit [lit. stand] firmly in the coral rock.
seebeiukofirm, solid
4s.th.stick out
Ini mamote emele mwatebe; ero ka i-vio.indication of a woman's ageShe was still a virgin, but her breasts were already sticking out.
5s.th.exist
~vio teve verb, oblique
~vio ‘stand’ + teve ‘with’
stand withbelong to ‹s.o.›. Forms possessive predicates equivalent to Eng. ‘have’
Uña ngaten' na, kape i-vio tev' eo.All those things will be yours.
A-rom, na vilo engaiote! Vilo pon i-vio teve kiapa tae.Look at this strange plant! We don't have it in our island.
synonym~wene teve
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1manner serialization(be, move) in a standing position
Longe i-ka i-vio ne mwoe.The firewood was piling up [lit. came standing] in the house.
2resultative serialization(move s.th.+) so it stands upright; hence erect ‹s.th.›
Li-vesu blateno i-vio. Blateno pon, moboro pe li-ngago ñei i-vio teva.They erected the ritual pole. Four rattan rods were tied to it so it would stand upright.
Li-tabe longe li-kamai li-wapio i-vio ne moe.They brought the firewood back home and piled it up in the house.
see~vesuerect
3(take, move s.th.) so it ends up being located somewhere; hence put up ‹s.th.›
Dapa li-loko mana vilo i-vio ne viabasa dapa.People put flowers in their hair.
Gi' one i-la nuduro i-vio ne sekele.My uncle put up a taboo sign in his garden.
Puro, li-bo vilo korone, li-ejau i-vio ne viapwene.To make an arrow, you sharpen a piece of strong wood, and insert it [lit. make it ‘stand’] into a reed shaft.
Ne-wasu ngaten' enaka i-vio.I'll tidy up my stuff.
vioe fioe noun
Lvnpiwe
Tnmve
POc*piRaqAlocasia macrorrhiza
Flora
Hong-Kong taro, bush taro, hill taroXanthosoma sagittifolium.
Pe na vioe tae, jebute.This is not hill taro, this is ordinary taro.
see lexical list atavtebe
vioe die fioe ⁿdie vioe die noun
Flora
sucker of giant-taroHong-Kong taro, bush taro, hill taroXanthosoma sagittifolium.
synonymvioe
vioe peini revo fioe peini revo noun
taro of the seasea foam
seevilisa revosea spray
vioe talabao fioe talaᵐbao noun
Tnmve talabao
Flora
sucker of giant-tarogiant taro, elephant-ear taroAlocasia macrorrhiza.
viomoro fiomoro noun
charcoal left in the fireplace
seeurocharcoal, soot
see lexical list atiawo
viri firi
Aadverb
1behind, in the rear
derivativeteviristern
2later, afterwards
Li-anu kava awoiu ka li-vongo viri.We first drink kava, and then have dinner.
Bnoun
Kin
lastborn
contrasts withmakumosofirstborn
viro1 firo noun
Lvnvire
Tnmvisara
POc*piRu
Flora
fan palmLicuala spp.
viro2 firo noun
analogy of shape w. viro1 (?)
coral reef; fringing reef
U-da viro awoiu, u-le ne motono ngamuli.As you go across the reef, you reach the open ocean.
seemokocoral formation
visibaele fisiᵐbaˈele noun, relational
Tnmbasagela
Cf. aele ‘leg’
Anatomy
knee
Men' one i-tabau i-woi visibaele ini ne touro.My son fell down and hurt his knee on the reef.
visiboko fisiᵐboko noun
Oven stones (visiboko)
stones used in the traditional oven (awene) for cooking and baking food
Li-avi visiboko ñe aviro.You remove the oven stones with the tongs.
seevokostone
visingele fisiŋele vesengele noun, relational
Tnmvasingele
Anatomy
1humnose
Visingele dapa i-su.They have a blocked nose.
Bingone i-ke ne visingele dapa.[mucus comes out of their nose] They have runny noses.
2animalsnout
vesengele pwoipig's snout
visone fisone noun
Bow and arrow (visone me puro)
POc*pusuR
Shooting arrowsvisone
visone bow
diro hunting arrow
puro combat arrow
malebu arrow
agilo arrowhead
tabuluburi quiver
~ngago to bend, string a bow
~wate2 to aim, target
~iui to shoot
~kovi to miss
~wete to hit
bow, a weapon used with arrows (puro, diro)
Pon i-la visone iape i-ka i-ngago. I-ngago wako, i-la puro kula i-vio ne waluko.He took his bow, and strung it. Once he had strung it, he took hold of a few arrows, and attached them to his waist.
vitoko fitoko votoko v'toko v'to adjective
Lvnvateoko
Tnmvatako
1in spacenear, close (to, teve)
Sekele iaba ene vitoko ne, takoie ne.Our garden is here, uphill this way.
I-wene pwo v'to teve awene tae? – Tae, n-ro tae!Isn't it on the ground, close to the fire? – No, I can't see it!
Paiu vitoko i-ka.directional verb ~ka3BPaiou village is very close from here.
2in timesoon; be about to
Vitoko teve me kape le-bo.They were about to start making (their canoe).
Ka vitoko pe la-koie ponu la-lengi dapa.As they were about to land, they heard some voices.
derivativeka vitoko kapesoon; almost
3fignearly, almost
Ka vitoko ngasune nga piene akapa.It's nearly the same as our language.
vivi fivi noun
Birds
Pacific golden ploverPluvialis fulva.
vivilo fifilo noun
Tnmpeire
Flora
swamp taroCyrtosperma chamissonis.
Vivilo li-teli ne netebe.Swamp taros are planted in swamps.
see lexical list atavtebe
~vo1 (i·)vo verb, transitive
1pound, beat ‹s.th.›, esp. with long and heavy stick
Dapa noma li-vo kangele kome li-ia kome.People in the past used to smash giant clams and grind them into axes.
see~wete
2espgrind, crush ‹nuts+›
li-vo vongoroto crush canarium almonds
~vo2 (i·)vo verb, transitive
1‘hit’, reach the limits of ‹a place›; hence fill ‹a place›, take up ‹room›
None ka i-vo sa eo?Has your meal filled up your tummy? (i.e. are you full?)
📘 From ~vo1 (?)
~vo mwa tanoe phrasal verb
tarohit edge of pit›grow large enough to reach the edge of the taro pit (mwa tanoe) in the garden; hence grow big
~vo3 (i·)vo verb, transitive
1raretie ‹s.th.›, fasten with rope
Kape li-odo tenuro me le-vo ñe nengele kuo korone.Then we find a rope and fasten tight the canoe's elements.
synonym~vi2
synonym~ngago
2put up, erect ‹s.th.›, with or without rope
Li-vo aero i-dai.They have erected a fence around it.
synonym~vesu
synonym~woi
3espbuild ‹house›
I-waivo idi pe li-vo mwoe.He taught people how to build houses.
~vo4 (i·)vo verb, transitive
(?) Cf. ~vo3 ‘tie’
plant ‹banana›
udo pe li-votype of bananaplanted bananas
see lexical list at~do1
~vodo foⁿdo verb, transitive
Lvn~vodo
Tnm~vado
1think, believe (that, ~ko2)
A-vodo a-ko kape l-ovei pe le-watebo teve dapa?Do you think we'll be able to ask them?
see~ko2A4say; think, believe
2hope (that, ~ko2)
Ni-vodo ni-ko eo ka uña damiliko iono pi-te wako.I hope that you and your children are well.
Ni-vodo ni-ko nga u-samame ene.I was hoping you would be able to help me.
synonym~ko bwara
3sometremember ‹s.o., s.th.›
Mamote a-vodo?Do you still remember?
O io, ka ni-tabo ni-vodo!Oh yes, I remember now!
antonym~mui
voko foko noun
POc*patu
stone, of any size: boulder, rock, pebble
maga voko pebbles
Waiero li-bo voko i-wapio.The waves have piled up the stones together.
Ni-tabulu voko i-abu i-le ne gilita.I rolled a rock down into the valley.
Li-romo nga voko, ia pon voko tae.It looks like a stone, but it's not a stone.
I-romo voko tilu. Iote wabulubu, iote teporo.He saw two stones: one round, one flat.
~vokoiu (i·)vokoju verb, transitive
Tnm~vae
1break, crush, destroy ‹s.th.›
Li-vokoiu longe.break firewood
Ka i-le i-le po ngiro i-aka ponu ra ka i-vokoiu. I-vokoiu wolowolo pon, i-vokoiu ka i-tabau.The hurricane blew so hard that it destroyed it. It destroyed the cross, and brought him down.
Mwalik' iote i-ka i-vokoiu nuduro.Someone came and tore out the taboo leaf.
2crush, kill ‹s.o.›
Kape le-ka kape ne-labu iote ne dapa ne-vokoiu!I'll come take one of them and I'll crush him!
vonila fonila noun
Lvnakaileve
Tnmuvilave
Contraction vono2 + ~la2
evening
Vonila wako!Good evening!
Li-koie bwogo ne vonila.They were walking in the dark, in the evening.
Ka vono i-sodo ponu, ne vonila ponu kata ka le-tetele pon.It was early morning, and they decided they would start [the festival] in the evening.
seebwogonight
Vono1 fono locative
LvnVana
Geo
Vono or Lovono: a village on the north coast of Banie, together with its area
Kula ka i-ka se vono Lale, Ngama, Vono.Some people (from Paiu) had moved to the areas of Lale, Ngama and Vono.
📘 This village is also known, in the literature, under the names Vanou or Whanou (Dillon). Its local name, in the language Lovono, is Vana.
synonymLovono
vono2 fono noun
Lvnvenelue
POc*panua
a generic term referring to space
synonymtemaka
1dry land (opp. sea); hence coast
Waiero i-vene ne vono i-katau ngiro Palapu.The waves went up to the dry land, following the north wind.
waiero peini vono [wave of the coast] tidal wave
synonymkulumoeland, island
2rarearea, zone
La-kovi vono basakulumoe aplaka Teanu.on the oceanThey sailed past the zone of the small island Teanu.
seetemakaplace
3+placenamedistrict, limited area around a certain village
Kula ka i-ka se vono Lale, Ngama, Vono.Some people (from Paiu) had moved to the areas of Lale, Ngama and Vono.
seekulumoevillage
seeaerodistrict
4rarethe world, universe
ne lovia vono iotein the Other World
📘 Neither vono or lovia vono are used as the normal word to designate the present world.
seemarama
5freqsubject of impersonal predicatesthe universe, atmosphere, insofar as it is subject to the diurnal cycle
vono i-sodoit is dawn
vono ka i-lait is dusk
📘 The phrase von’ i-la ‘it is dusk’ (see ~la2) is usually contracted to vonila ‘evening’.
Vonovono fonofono placename
Redup. vono23
Geo
the Reef islands, north of Temotu province
piene adapa Vonovonothe Äiwoo language
vonukosi fonukosi noun
Entomology
cricketOrthoptera spp.
~vongo (i·)voŋo verb, intransitive
Lvn~wanga
Tnm~(a)vango
POc*paŋan
1s.o.eat, have a meal
Li-anu kava awoiu, ka li-vongo viri.They first drank kava, and then had their meal.
Li-atevo iepiene pe noma, li-oburo, li-vongo ka li-mokoiu.We tell old stories, we sing, we eat and then we go to sleep.
see~eeat s.th.
~vongo pine verb, intransitive
groupeat bigshare a large meal; have a feast or celebration
Nanana kape le-vongo pine ne kulumoe.We'll have a feast today in the village.
2s.th.be burning, burn; perish in fire
Moe enone i-vongo ne iawo.My house perished in the fire.
Kuo enone i-vongo.My canoe was burnt!
see~su1burn s.th.
3s.o.be jealous, feel jealousy (for, ne)
Ini i-vongo n' emel' iape.He is jealous of his wife.
Etym.Possibly a metaphor from the previous sense ‘burn’.
vongoro foŋoro noun
Lvnvengere
Tnmvingara
POc*[ka]ŋaRi
Flora
canarium tree, canarium almondCanarium indicum.
vongoro vaowild almonds
li-bi vongorocollect canarium almonds
li-vo vongoroto crush canarium almonds
iunubo vongorobasketful of almonds
Li-wete jebute li-wete vongoro awoiu pon, li-ejau mama.We mash taros, we crush almonds, and make the mama pudding.
voro1 foro noun
Tnmvelvara
Flora
Sea HibiscusHibiscus tiliaceus.
mana vorohibiscus flower
seetawoHibiscus rosa-sinensis
voro beve noun
white sea-hibiscusvariety with flowers of a light yellow colour
voro moloe noun
red sea-hibiscusvariety with reddish flowers
voro2 foro noun
POc*paRi
Fish
genray, stingrayRajiformes spp.
bele voro [skin of stingray] traditional sander
seevovoiemanta ray
voro bele voro noun
Fish
ray for sanderBlue-spotted rayTaeniura lymma.
voro uvilo noun
Fish
rat-like raySpotted eagle rayAetobatus narinari.
~votei (i·)votei verb, intransitive
discuss, deliberate; instruct, give instructions
~votei piene phrasal verb
~votei ‘’ + piene
instruct speechhold a meeting
Moe nga ne, moe pe li-votei piene.This sort of house is used for meetings.
synonym~wapioB
~votei i-wene serial verb, transitive
instruct it-stayspromise (that, ~ko2B)
Li-votei i-wene li-ko kape le-la viko le-mini idi ia li-la li-mini tae.They promised to give money to people, but they didn't.
see~apteiswear
votobo fotoᵐbo adjective
Lvnvakabe
1s.th.adequate, sufficient (that, pe + clause)
Ero na mijaka, votobo pe ni-anu tae.There's too little water, it's not enough for me to drink.
2necessary (that, pe + Irrealis clause)
Li-bo kuo votobo pe i-la moro tete we teva.Making a canoe can take up to 3 or 4 days.
3desirable, suitable (that, pe + Irrealis clause)
I-romo i-ko ka votobo pe i-ioi i-abu.He saw it was the right moment to push down (the canoe).
Ka votobo pe na kape u-viñi dapa u-ko pon susuko tae.You really have to go tell them that this was untrue.
Telepakau abia idi li-mui, ka votobo pe l-ovei.Many traditions are now forgotten, people had better know them.
Badjective, transitive
corresponding to ‹s.th., s.o.›
1facing ‹s.th.›
La-ka votobo vono Paiu.They arrived precisely in front of Paiu.
2sufficient for ‹s.th., s.o.›
Viñe teipu tete we teva, bwara kape votobo eo.Three or four cups of kava should be enough for you.
votoko fotoko adjective
variant of vitoko
vovo fofo noun
Vaeakau-Taumakofaofaoa tree, Neisosperma oppositifolium
Flora
Twin apple, a tree (Apocynaceae)Neisosperma oppositifolium.
vovoie fovoie noun
Fish
Manta rayManta birostris.
seevoro2stingray