da1 ⁿda
Lvndea
Tnmdea
POc*ra3 plural
Apersonal pronoun
Grammar
3rd person dual independent pronoun, referring to a pair of people already mentioned in discourse
1subjectthey
Da tieli.subjectThey are siblings.
In’ ne me in’ re, da menuko.This man here, and that one there, they are friends.
Da ñoko lai-te ne kulumoe.Only they two were living in the village.
seeda-tiluboth of them
2objectthem: anaphoric third dual pronoun, referring to a pair of people already mentioned in discourse
Teliki iadapa li-wokobe da.objectThe chiefs welcomed them.
Kape la-kila da.reflexiveThey’re going to marry [each other].
3possessortheir: 3rd dual possessor of inalienable nouns
La-katei kiñe vabasa da.possessor of dependent nounThey’re pulling each other’s hair.
seela- ③3 dual subject
Bnumber
foll. by possessed kin termdyad: construction referring to a couple of kin-related individuals
da til’ iape[lit. both his brother] two brothers
d’ ai’ iape[lit. both his father] a father–child pair
da gi’ iape[lit. both his uncle] an uncle–nephew pair
da pi’ iape[lit. both his grandfather] the grandfather and his grandson
da uk’ iape[lit. both his in-law] two in-laws
Clinker
between two singular NP's(X) and (Y): serves as a coordinator between two human individuals
mwaliko iote da emel’ iapea man and his wife
Emele iune, ini da men’ iape, la-te ne kulumoe.One woman, [she] with her child, were living in the village.
da=2 ⁿda number
POc*ra3 plural
plural proclitic found in combination with a handful of irregular plural nouns
mwaliko → da=penuoman → men
emele → da=viñeviwoman → women
menu → da=melikochild → children
Synt.Ordinary nouns encode their plural using dapa or uña, e.g. dapa teliki ~ uña teliki ‘(the) chiefs’.
~da3 (i·)ⁿda verb, transitive
Lvn~da
Tnm~dao
1go past, cross ‹s.th., s.o.›
Li-da dapa ne anoko.They crossed [lit. went past] each other on the road.
Li-da noma re i-ka.They came here rounding the cape over there.
2in time expressionstime+pass
Ai' one ka i-bu, ebieve tua ka i-da.My father died eight years ago. [lit. he has died, eight years have passed]
Aeve i-etengi kwate i-da tilu-tae.It’s 8:30 [lit. the sun is ringing 30 over 8]
3after a first adjectival or verbal predicateexceed, surpass ‹s.th., s.o.› in doing s.th., hence do s.th. better or be more than. Forms comparative structures
Ini bwara biouro i-da eo.She’s probably taller than you. [she’s tall she surpasses you]
dada ⁿdaⁿda noun
Sea
jellyfishCnidaria spp.
~dadai (i·)ⁿdaⁿdai
Lvn~dai
Red. ~dai
Averb, transitive
often V2 in serial patternsurround ‹s.th.›, go around ‹a place›
Dapa kula li-vio li-dadai mane.Some men were standing around the dancing area.
Bverb, intransitive
often V2 in serial patterngo around, go in circle
Li-ae kie tepapa i-dadai.They dug holes for the dancing boards all around (the village area).
Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.The pig tusk has grown out into a full circle.
~dai (i·)ⁿdai
Lvn~dai
Averb, transitive
1often V2 in serial patternsurround ‹s.th.›, go around ‹a place›
Noma, uña toñaki van li-ka li-dai temaka i-katau uña basakulumoe.In the olden days, large ships would sail around the archipelago, going from island to island.
Tetawene i-wen’ i-dai moe na.The drawings were running around the walls of the house.
2distributive meaning(go) around, (go) along ‹a group+›
Kape n-ajau kopi abia me le-waga i-dai kulumoe iakapa.I'll make many copies so we can distribute them around in the village.
Bverb, intransitive
often V2 in serial pattern, 3sg subject(go) around, (go) in circle
Tepapa i-dai ka ne mane po, li-vo aero i-dai.The dancing boards were lying around the village area; and they had erected a fence all around.
Uña teliki li-anu i-dai i-le i-le.The chiefs drank the kava around (in a circle).
damala ⁿdamala noun
Lvnpemala
Tnmpetonga
da= + *mala ‘white’ (?)
1personwhite, Westerner
Viabasa emele damala ponu pwelele.That white woman has soft hair.
seekorowhite
seebevewhite
2collective use, even with no plural markerWesterners, whitemen
Ka basavono ponu, mamote damala tae.In those times, there were no Westerners yet (in this area).
Li-romo ñe duduko we damala pe Franis.They watched with the looking glass of the French whitemen.
ie damala adjective
of whitementypical of the Western world, modern (opp. iakapa, traditional)
kuo ie damala[canoe of Westerners] a modern ship
kulumoe ie damala[village of Westerners] a city
dameliko ⁿdameliko da meliko damiliko da miliko noun
Lvnmaranga melika
Tnmlali uneida
Kin
children: irregular plural of menu or apali
dameliko 'nonemy children
dameliko viñevi[female children] little girls
buro ie damilikoa children’s song
Okoro pe dameliko li-moloe ñi tae.A knife is not for children to play with.
Ni-vodo ni-ko eo ka uña damiliko iono pi-te wako.I hope that you and your children are well.
MorphologyOriginally da meliko with plural da= clitic; the dual form is da-tilu meliko ‘the two children’. The form sometimes has redundant plural marking: uña dameliko.
see singularmenu
see singularapali
dapa ⁿdapa
Lvndetu
Tnmdato
Apersonal pronoun
Cf. da ① ‘3 dual’ + -pa
Grammar
1subject, object or possessoranaphoric third plural pronoun, referring to a group of people already mentioned in discourse
Dapa li-madau.subjectThey were scared.
Ni-ovei dapa.objectI know them.
Li-pei dapa.reflexiveThey were rejoicing [themselves].
kie dapapossessor of dependent nountheir graves
enga dapatheir names
2raregeneric plural pronoun: people, generic ‘they’
dapa ne kulumoepeople in the village (villagers)
Sem.In this meaning, dapa is less common than idi, the impersonal 3pl pronoun, which is always non-anaphoric (‘people’).
synonymidi
3appellativepeople! guys!
Ei! Dapa! Na toñaki ae na?Hey, people! What sort of ship is that?
Ebel' ini me, dapa!This is excellent, guys!
Bquantifier
1foll. by Nounplural marker for human nouns
dapa telikithe chiefs
dapa et’ iapehis mothers
synonymuña
seeda=
2foll. by NP modifierin the absence of a noun head, dapa serves as head in a plural NP with human reference: ‘people’, ‘those (who+)’
dapa kula+quantifiersome people
dapa abiamany people, many
dapa bworo+adjectiveBlack people
dapa wopine [the great/old ones] grown men; authorities; ancestors
dapa Teanu+locativethe people of Teanu
dapa IuraVanuatu people
dapa noma +adverbpeople of the past, ancestors
dapa peini toñaki pon+linkerthe people on that ship
dapa po li-kila emele+relative clause, subjectthose who are married
dapa pe uña teliki li-lamini tanoe se dapa+relative clause with resumptivethose who were given land by the authorities
Kin
3+possessor enone‹s.o.›’s people: relatives, family; community
(uña) dapa enonemy people, my relatives
dapa ie mwaliko po i-buthe family of the person who died
Dapa iakapa ka awoiu!Our people are doomed!
Dapa iakapa noma li-ovei pe li-pwalau.Our ancestors used to practice navigation.
dapa gete ⁿdapa ᵑgete noun
Lvndetu laungale
plural of mwatageteyoung unmarried boys, typic. male teenagers
Kape pe-loko dapa gete enone, da meliko viñevi, pe-lui ne moe re.We'll take my boys and my girls, and lead them to that house over there.
Dapa gete le-wabe, le-lui tev' dapa li-anu.The young men fill up (the cups) and give them to (the elders) for them to drink.
moe uña dapa getedouble pluralthe house of youngsters
Uña teliki samame dapa wopine li-waivo uña dapa gete ñe telepakau akapa.The chiefs and the elders teach youngsters about our culture.
see singularmwatagete
dapa wopine ⁿdapa wopine idi wopine noun
1masculine and plurals.o.the great onesadult men, elderly men
dapa wopine, dapa gete, da viñevi, da meliko…elderly men, young men, women, children…
Bwara le-ko le-watebo iepiene teve uña dapa wopine.double pluralWe should rather ask the elders about those traditional stories.
2‘great men’: men of high rank, initiated men; hence chief
Noma, idi wopine li-akawo kolokolo me i-botongo dapa.In ancient times, important men used to wear 'kolokolo' breast plates as a protection.
Li-koie takoie ne touro ponu, dapa wopine kula li-ke li-le.While they were walking up towards the shore, some of the [island's] chiefs walked down towards them.
seedapenuomen
contrasts withdapa geteyoungster
see singularmwaliko pine
derivativepiene adapa wopineformal speech
3sometancestors
synonymdapa noma
dapenuo ⁿdapenuo da penuo noun
men: irregular plural of mwalikote ‘man, male’
da-tilu penuo mwatagetetwo young men
Ruene iote ie da penuo, ka iote ie da viñevi.One door is for men, another one for women.
Dapenuo li-go dapa ñe tolosai; da viñevi li-ativi dapa ñe tekume.The men girt themselves in loincloths, the women in skirts.
MorphologyOriginally da penuo with plural da= clitic; the dual form is da-tilu penuo ‘the two men’.
da-tilu ⁿdatilu datilu
Tnmlalu
Aquantifier
dual proclitic, combined with the same irregular plural nouns as da=
da-tilu viñevi mwatebetwo virgin women
da-tilu penuo mwatagetetwo young men
Na nga da-tilu meliko.These look like two children.
seetilutwo
Bpersonal pronoun
1definite sensethey two, both of them. Heavier form of 3 dual pronoun da ①
Da-tilu pe Teanu; kulumoe iada Aneve.They (two) were from Teanu; their village was Aneve.
2generic sensetwo people; a couple (married or not), a dyad
basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila da[lit. when two people follow each other] whenever there is a wedding
Datilu ne ene kape la-ka la-romo ene.Two relatives of mine will come visit me.
3appellativeyou two; guys!
Ei, da-tilu!Hey, you two!
daviñevi ⁿdaviɲevi da viñevi noun
Lvnveñime
POc*pinewoman
women: irregular plural of emele ‘woman’
makone ie da-viñevia women's dance
namolo ie daviñeviwomen's clothes
dapa wopine, dapa gete, da viñevi, da meliko…elderly men, young men, women, children…
Daviñevi tete li-te ne moe pe li-apinu ene pon.There are three women sitting in the kitchen over there.
Da viñevi wopine li-ovei pe li-anu kava.Adult women can drink kava.
Temabete me mawene, li-garei pe daviñevi li-te ene.Women are forbidden from sitting on mats or semi-mats.
MorphologyOriginally da viñevi with plural da= clitic; the dual form is da-tilu viñevi ‘the two women’. The form viñevi sometimes appears in compounds, e.g. da meliko viñevi ‘female children, i.e. girls’.
davuduko ⁿdavuⁿduko noun
Flora
k.o. leafy plant (Polypodiaceae)Microsorum punctatum.
dekele ⁿdekele noun
Lvntepanga
Anatomy
animaltail
Nga u-katei namuko iote, u-toe dekele mina.If you catch a fish, you must cut off its tail.
delesa ⁿdelesa noun
petal
delesa mana viloa flower petal
demene ⁿdemene noun
An outrigger canoe (kuo demene)
POc*saman
Techniques
outrigger of a canoe
Po ka li-bo ebele kuo awoiu, kape le-toe demene peini na ta.Once the hull of the canoe is finished, it's time to cut its outrigger.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
kuo demene noun
outrigger canoe
Basavono na, kuo demene ka l-ejau tae, pe li-la ngatene ñi pine tamwase.These days, outrigger canoes aren't being made any more, because they are too much work.
dere ⁿdere noun
Fish
k.o. tunaThunnus sp.
dere wablubu noun
Fish
round tunaSkipjack tunaEuthynnus pelamis.
dere mie boe noun
Fish
shark-smelling tunaNarrow-barred Spanish mackerelScomberomorus commerson.
dero ⁿdero noun
Lvndure
Tnmdora
Flora
kauri treeAgathis macrophylla.
Li-kai bele dero.tear off the bark of the kaori tree
Dero ponu, vilo pe emele i-ve.mythThe kauri is a tree that was first born out of a woman.
Abwa dero i-ke mina oie basavono po li-toe, i-ka i-beiu ka li-kila li-ko “tepulu peini dero”.The sap of the kauri tree runs out of the trunk when you cut it; then it solidifies, and we call it tepulu, “kauri gum”.
deruobe ⁿderuoᵐbe noun
Fish
crocodile needlefishTylosaurus crocodilus.
devele ⁿdevele noun
Lvndevele
Tnmdavala
Techniques
1k.o. wooden knife traditionally used in cooking
seeokoro▻④knife
Sea
2analogy of shapeknifePen shellPinna bicolor.
📘 The shape of this shell is vaguely reminiscent of a knife blade.
Sea
3hencepearl oysterPinctada margaritifera.
~di (i·)ⁿdi verb, transitive
1cut off, prune ‹tree›
2shave ‹beard›
U-di vagumia eo ko!Shave your beard!
ShavingLi-di idi
Noma, nuduko, ero pe i-wene ne moboe voko ne noma. Li-romo dapa ñepe ene, li-la ije boe li-di ñei vagumia dapa ka viabasa dapa.
In the past, our mirrors were just water puddles in a stone hole on the reef. Looking at themselves in the water, men would use a shark tooth to shave their beard or their head.
didie ⁿdiⁿdie adjective
surfacerough, not smooth
antonym~mumwolismooth
die ⁿdie noun, relational
Lvndie
Tnmdele
Anatomy
1hum, animalbone
die ne aeleleg bone
Ni-sune die iote.I found a bone.
die mwaliko pe i-buthe bones of a dead body
die idi noun
bone of peoplehuman bones
Puro, li-ejau ñe die idi.War arrows are made using human bones.
die nengele noun
Anatomy
structured bonesskeleton
die i-meli phrase
pregnant womanpainful bonesfeel contractions conducive to labour
Die i-meli ponu, i-ve!She felt the contractions, and soon she was giving birth.
seesa pinepregnant
see~vegive birth
Anatomy
2spine, back
Ne topola 'none pe ni-wo ne die 'ne, uo kula kupa tete ka pi-ae.In the basket I'm carrying on my back, these are a few yams we just dug out.
synonymutedie
derivativediemosospine
diemoso ⁿdiemoso noun
Lvnlebwe
Cf. die ‘bone’
Anatomy
spine
dienebe ⁿdieneᵐbe noun
Architecture
light horizontal purlin in the roof structure
📘 This generic term for light purlins contrasts with terms for specific beams with a stronger supporting role, e.g. basadigo ‘tie-beam’, womoe ‘main purlin’, pumene ‘ridgepole’. Purlins support rafters (lo).
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
digo ⁿdiᵑgo noun
Architecture
vertical post holding the walling of a house (telemoe), and supporting a tie-beam (basadigo).
Li-toe iuro, ae, digo, we uña ngatene nga pon, peini kape le-vo.They made pillars, beams, and all the pieces so they could build [the house].
📘 This post is of secondary importance – opp. iutego ‘main supporting pillar’.
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
diksoneri diksoneri diksonari noun
Engdictionary
dictionary
Ne-ko ne-la awis pine iakapa ne-mini tili’ akapa pe i-si diksoneri akapa ñe piene akapa Teanu.I’d like to extend our deep gratitude to our brother, who wrote our dictionary in our language of Teanu.
poss. classifierenaka▻⑦
seebuka
dingobe1 ⁿdiŋoᵐbe digobe noun
Lvndingora
POc*sikop
Birds
White-collared KingfisherHalcyon chloris.
dingobe2 ⁿdiŋoᵐbe digobe noun
Cf. dingobe ① (by analogy)
Fish
Blackeye thicklip, k.o. parrotfishHemigymnus melapterus.
seeboro ②parrotfish
diro ⁿdiro noun
arrow, dart, used in hunting (opp. puro, arrow used in warfare)
Diro, li-le ne ngogoro li-avi otovo; awoiu li-la iadiro peini, li-bo diro.You go to the bush, collect sago leaves; take out their midribs, and sharpen them into darts.
Pe li-wete telupe, u-avi visone ka u-iui diro i-le i-wete ini.When you hunt pigeons, you bend your bow, and let the arrow fly and hit it.
TechnHunting arrows diro are made with the midrib of a sago leaf (iadiro peini otovo). Being made of a single piece, they have a simpler design than combat arrows puro.
see lexical list atvisonebow
mata diro noun
point of arrowtip of arrow
vebe mata-diro analogy of shape[lit. arrow-tip vebe] kind of Barringtonia fruit
~do1 (i·)ⁿdo verb, transitive
Tnm~do
Words for planting~do
~do plant ‹tree, flower›
~teli plant ‹fruit, taro›
~vo ④ plant ‹bananas›
~woi plant ‹maniok›
~wowo ③ plant ‹yam, tuber
vese seed
mata ② sprout
jie taro shoot, sucker
ekuo digging stick
plant ‹trees›
Li-do baleplant a breadfruit
Li-do balaweplant a pineapple
Li-do mana viloplant flowers
La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.kaori treeThey collected shoots, and began to plant them around the island.
Ai-e mana luro wako? – Ewe. – Pe li-sava!jokeDo you like rice? – Yes I do. – Then just buy it!
~do2 (i·)ⁿdo verb, transitive
Lvn~ne
POc*ⁿdolom
swallow
U-do etapu.Don't swallow it.
U-romo nga die, nara kape u-do i-abu.Beware the bones, you might swallow them.
~do3 (i·)ⁿdo verb, transitive
scrape off ‹fish scales, ngava› when scaling a fish
U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.You scrape off the scales, and then gut it.
~dobuo (i·)ⁿdoᵐbuo verb, intransitive
Tnmvatubuka
be wet, damp
Uña namolo enone mamote i-dobuo.My clothes are still wet.
Tokoli i-dobuo pe tebo, ka i-mu tamwase.The bridge is wet due to the rain, it's very slippery.
antonymmimione
dokita ⁿdokita noun
Engdoctor
doctor, physician
synonymtaluaito
doko ⁿdoko noun
POc*raqu(p)
Flora
Dragon plum (Anacardiaceae)Dracontomelon dao.
dokole ⁿdokole noun
Fish
sand smelt, k.o. fishSillaginidae spp.
done ⁿdone adjective
Tnmnione
1view, picture+hazy, blurry
antonymvengelaclear
2speechunclear
donga ⁿdoŋa noun, relational
lid
donga awothe lid of the [small box containing] lime
synonymmata
dowene ⁿdowene noun
Fish
PompanoTrachinotus sp.
duduko ⁿduⁿduko noun
glass
main entrynuduko