ma1 ma noun, relational
Lvnme
Tnmme
POc*lima
Anatomy
arm; hand
Li-vet' piene ñe ma dapa.They talk with their hands.
Webwe i-vene i-wen' ne ma dapa; loko i-vio ne ma dapa; vilitoe i-vio ne viabasa dapa.dancersThey had armbands on their arms, scented leaves on their armbands; and white flowers in their hair.
Ai’ akapa i-tabe ma ini boso eo ka uña damiliko iono.blessingLet our Father raise his hand above you and your children.
1sgma ene3sgma ini
ma2 ma mwa
Tnmake
POc*Rumaq
Anoun, relational
place where ‹animal+› usually dwells: den, lair, burrow
ma louboa crab's hole
Bpossessive classifier
1after moe ‘house’(home, lair) of ‹s.o.›
moe ma tadoe Devils' lair (ancestral temple)
Li-pinoe li-dai ra ra awoiu, li-tabo li-le ne bonge ma dapa.dancing SpiritsThey dance on and on, until they return to their cave home.
Toplau mwa gete clubhouse for youngsters
Voko ma ⓖete Youngsters' Rock
seemam
2(house) for ‹s.th.›
moe ma longefirewood house (where wood is stocked)
~ma3 (i·)ma verb, intransitive
Tnm~ko'o
(?) POc*mamasadry
1liquid+shallow
antonym~kopine
2revo ‘sea’be low tide
Revo ka i-koie, we ka i-ma?Is it high tide or low tide?
antonym~koie
mabere maᵐbere noun
Fish
Purse-eyed scadSelar crumenophthalmus.
~mabie (i·)maᵐbie verb, intransitive
foodstale
None ponu ka i-mabie.The food has gone stale.
see~ponosour
~mabui (i·)maᵐbui
Tnm~mabui
Averb, intransitive
be slow
Li-mabui li-ae tanoe, wako ka li-lateli teve.They quietly dug a hole in the ground, and put (the treasure) there.
Bsecond verb, intransitive
(do s.th.) slowly, quietly
Abu u-vet' piene u-mabui!Please talk slowly.
U-wai u-mabui! Kiane ’tapu!Paddle slowly! Not too fast!
antonymkiane
mabukaia maᵐbukaia noun, relational
Anatomy
anus
I-u ñe mabukaia.He wiped his anus.
synonymmwa tedele
seeutabuttocks
~madau (i·)maⁿdau verb, intransitive
Lvn~mwatau
Tnm~mwadau
POc*matakut
be afraid, be scared (of, ñe)
Pe-madau etapu, ponu menuko iaba.Don't be scared, this is our friend.
Dapa li-madau ñe toñaki ponu.They were afraid of that ship.
mada uko maⁿda uko noun
egg of louse, nit
seeukolouse
~made (i·)maⁿde verb, transitive
sharpen, carve ‹wood› so as to give it a sharp or pointy shape
I-bo ebele kuo; awoiu, i-made basa, ka teviri.After cutting out the canoe hull, he carved out its prow and its stern.
see~bo ②carve ‹wood›
see~ia ③file s.th.
madebe maⁿdeᵐbe noun
Fish
rabbitfishSiganidae spp.
madele maⁿdele noun
Tnmmajane
Sea
giant clam, encased in rockTridacna noae.
Madele i-betei.The clam shut itself.
see lexical list atkanamukoclam shell
mademene maⁿdemene noun
Fish
Black spot snapperLutjanus fulviflamma.
maga maᵑga noun, relational
liquidsmall quantity, drops
maga eroa bit of water
maga kerosina small quantity of kerozene
seeañabit (food+)
maga voko noun
drops of stonepebble stones
magobe maᵑgoᵐbe adjective
lazy
synonym~mnate
~maili1 (i·)maili verb, intransitive
Lvn~kawa
Tnm~ka
1animal, humgrow up, get older
Noma, po apali i-maili i-ven' i-ka, i-te tev' ai' iape me et' iape.In the old days, when a child grew up, he would stay with his parents.
2plant+grow big
Ngogoro ka i-maili.The bush has grown there.
Pi-romo uie i-maili pine.You can see how the leaves have grown big.
Avtebe adapa ka i-maili i-vene kata ka vitoko kape moso.Their taros had grown up and were almost ripe.
synonympine
~maili2 (i·)maili ~mali verb, transitive
light ‹fire, iawo
I-mali iawo awoiu i-lui voko tilu pon i-le i-wen’ ene.She lit a fire, and put two stones upon it.
📘 The phrase ~maili iawo commonly contracts as ~maliawo.
see~su ①burn
maiuko majuko noun
Fish
Common Silver-biddyGerres oyena.
~mako (i·)mako verb, intransitive
Lvn~mako
Tnm~mako
Polynesian*mako
gendance, incl. modern dance
Li-vo aero i-dai, me kape le-mako ne to.They erected a fence around (the village area), for us to dance in the middle.
Li-si teveliko ne kulumoe, me le-kila idi le-ka le-mako.Someone in the village is blowing the conch, calling out to people to come and dance.
Ba-mako ra i-vagasi vono i-sodo.discoYou danced together until dawn!
derivativemakonedance
formal synonym~pinoeperform traditional dances
~makoe (i·)makoe verb, intransitive
Redup~mamakoe
be broken, in two pieces
Ije ene i-makoe.I have a broken tooth.
Tepao 'naka i-makoe, kape ne-makui ñe metae.My fishing gun is broken, I can't use it for fishing.
see~arevodestroy
see lexical list at~abu ③
makone makone noun
Tnmmakone
dance
makone ie daviñevia women's dance
Ni-romo makone iaipa wako po pi-pinoe.I'm really enjoying those dances you've been performing.
Makone na i-koie ne ebele ene!This dance really gets under my skin! [lit. it gets in my body]
~makui (i·)makui verb, intransitive
1dive underwater
Li-makui Ngabe pon, temaka po toñaki tamwaliko.underwater archaeologyThey've been diving around Ngambe, at the site of the wreckage.
2esppractice underwater fishing
Tepao 'naka i-makoe, kape ne-makui ñe metae.My fishing gun is broken, I can't use it for fishing.
makumoso makumoso noun
Cf. moso ①▻② ‘ripe, old’
1first-born, elder (sibling, child)
makumoso ionoyour first child
Makumoso na? – Makumoso pon ta.Is this your firstborn (child)? – That's my firstborn indeed.
contrasts withi-katau-tevesecond-born
2espchiefparamount, supreme
Teliki Makumoso supreme chief, Supreme God
Malangune malaŋune noun
Mythology
Malangune creatures: k.o. goblins or pixies
dameliko Malangunethe Malangune pixies
malebu maleᵐbu noun
Artf
stunning arrow
visone me puro ka malebua bow with darts and stunning arrows
contrasts withdiro(sharp) arrow, dart
see lexical list atvisonebow
~maliawo (i·)maliawo verb, intransitive
~maili ② ‘light’ + iawo ‘fire’
make a fire
Ka i-mamei ponu ka i-maliawo ka i-wene teve.As she was feeling cold, she lit a fire and lied down beside it.
see lexical list atiawo
~maluo (i·)maluo
Lvn~milipie
Tnm~mag(i)liva
POc*maqurip
Averb, intransitive
s.th., s.o.live, be alive
Nga ero tae, kape i-maluo metae.Without water, it won't be able to survive.
dapa pe li-maluo[those who are alive] the Living
Mamote i-maluo, we tae? – Tae, ka i-bu.Is she still alive? – No, she's already passed away.
contrasts with~budie, be dead
Bnounmaluo
1life, way of life
Li-katau maluo iadapa.They just follow their way of life.
Teliki Makumoso Banie i-waivo idi mwaliko ñe telepakau, ñe maluo.The Elder God Banie instructed humans with culture and life.
2character, personality
Maluo iono wako.I like your personality.
synonymimaluo
mam mam noun, relational
Contraction moe + ma ② ⓑ
home of ‹s.o., s.th.›
main entryma ② ⓑ
mam tadoe noun
Anthropology
home of spiritsplace (typic. cave), whether covered or not, haunted by spirits or deities (tadoe); hence heathen temple
mam tadoe Ngamathe temple of spirits, in Ngama
main entrymoe ma tadoe
mama1 mama noun, relational
Lvnmama
Tnmmama
1s.o.voice
Mama ini pine.He has a loud voice.
Ni-lengi mama Stanley ni-sai ñe mama Alex.I heard Stanley's voice, I thought it was Alex.
I-atevo iepiene ni-la mama ini.I recorded his voice as he told the story.
2s.th.sound, esp. singing sound of an instrument (vs. aña ‘noise’)
Ni-lengi mama gita.I can hear the sound of a guitar.
3raremessage sent by ‹s.o.›
4espmanmarriage proposal sent to the family of a woman
U-teli mama ene se.formula for official engagementPlease send her ‘my voice’.
main entry~teli mama
mama2 mama noun
k.o. traditional pudding, made of taros (jebute) and Canarium almonds (vongoro), and served in important social occasions
Li-wete jebute li-wete vongoro awoiu pon, li-ejau mama.We mash taros, we crush almonds, and make the pudding.
📘 One cooks taros first, and then mash them, together with almonds, in a mortar (monone), until it becomes a tender dough.
derivative~wete mamaprepare the pudding
~mamabe (i·)mamaᵐbe verb, intransitive
be divided, split in (two, three…)
Toñaki ponu, i-mamabe tilu.The ship split in two.
Iaero ne i-mamabe tete.The river splits in three.
see~panadesplit ‹s.th.›
~mamakoe (i·)mamakoe verb, intransitive
Redup. ~makoe
be broken into many pieces, be shattered
Okoro pon, via i-mamakoe.That knife has a broken handle.
see lexical list at~abu ③
main entry~makoe
mamdeuko mamdeuko noun
Tnmmamdauka
The Cardinal Honeyeater (mamdeuko)
Birds
Cardinal HoneyeaterMyzomela cardinalis.
Mamdeuko po via moloe.The honeyeater has red feathers.
AnthropologyVanikoro people used to trade the red feathers of this little bird with other islands of the Santa Cruz archipelago, who then transformed into customary money.
viavia mamdeuko noun
Feather money from the Santa Cruz, made with the red feathers of the Honeyeater (mamdeuko)
viavia ‘hair, feathers’ + mamdeuko ‘Honeyeater’
feathers of Honeyeaterfeather money: an artifact used by neighbouring Santa Cruz islanders as their traditional money. Takes the form of a red belt, made with the red feathers of the Honeyeater bird.
Feather money in Santa CruzViavia mamdeuko
Dapa Niteni li-ejau viko iadapa ñe viavia menuko pe moloe, enga ini ‘mamdeuko’. Viavia pon, li-la abwa bale li-lateli ne mengela vilo. Viko peini, dapa li-kila li-ko ‘noviapu’.
“The people of Santa Cruz (Niteni) make their money using the feathers of a red bird called ‘mamdeuko’, Cardinal honeyeater. They use breadfruit sap to glue those feathers to a piece of wood. That traditional form of money, they call it ‘noviapu’.”
~mamei (i·)mamei verb, intransitive
s.o.feel cold, shiver with cold
Ka i-mamei ponu ka i-maliawo ka i-wene teve.As she was feeling cold, she lit a fire and lied down beside it.
seemedigocold
mamote mamote mate
Lvnmwa(melu)
Tnmmamo
Aparticle
before the predicatestill
Pon mamote i-te.He is still alive.
Mamote ni-mui.negative verb (~mui)I still don't know / I don't know yet.
Ini mamote emele mwatebe.noun predicateShe was still a young woman.
Temaka mamote nedemo we ka tomoro?Is it still dark? or daylight already?
Basavono ponu, mamote kulumoe Tetawo mate idi abia li-te ene.At that time, the village of Tetawo was still inhabited.
derivativemamote… taenot yet
Bpredicative
not yet!
Li-te li-te li-ko “Mamote!”They waited, waited…, and said “No, not yet!”
synonymmou
mamote… tae mate… tae construction
mamote ‘still’ + tae
still… notnot yet
Ka li-nabe keba ia mamote ba-kila keba tae.We're engaged, but we aren't married yet.
Mate pi-toe dero i-abu awoiu tae.We haven't cut down all the cauri trees yet.
Ka basavono ponu, mamote damala tae.existential taeIn those times, there were no Westerners yet (in this area).
Mamote menu one tae.possessionI don't have children yet.
mana mana noun, relational
Tnmmane
plantflower
mana voroflower of hibiscus
Mana ka i-ke.[its flowers have come out] It has given flowers.
mana vilo noun
flower of plantflower of indefinite species; generic term for flowers
Dapa li-loko mana vilo i-vio ne viabasa dapa.People put flowers in their hair.
mana luro mana luro noun
Tnmmane vadua
1inflorescence of coconut
Modernity
2periphrdue to analogy in shaperice
aña mana luroa bit of rice
Ai-e mana luro wako?Do you like eating rice?
manave manave noun
Flora
coconut skirt: cloth-like fibrous material at the base of the coconut tree
U-la manave awoiu u-vili.kavaYou take a piece of coconut fibre, and squeeze (the kava).
synonymnuko
see lexical list atluro
mane mane noun
Tnmmene
central area in the village, where villagers meet, and esp. where they dance
ne to manein the middle of the village area
Tepapa i-dai ka ne mane po, li-vo aero i-dai.The dancing boards were lying around the village area; and they had erected a fence all around.
Kape ba-woi okoro, bai-oburo ne mane.We shall pound the bamboos and sing songs, in the dancing area.
manoko manoko noun
menstruation
~te ne manokobe in one's period
Da viñevi nga li-te ne manoko, kape le-koie ne moe metae.When women are in their periods, it is taboo for them to come inside our houses.
see~kovi metelemiss periods → be pregnant
mangamanga maŋamaŋa noun
towel
Ne-la mangamanga 'none i-avo.Let me hang my towel.
mañoka maɲoka manioka noun
EngmaniocaPortuguesemandioca
Flora
manioc, cassavaManihot esculenta.
velebie peini maniokacassava starch
📘 Plant introduced recently.
marama marama noun
Motamaramaworld
world
Dapa abia ne marama na awa dapa i-viane le-te wako.Everybody in this world just wants to live in peace.
synonymlovia vono
synonymkulumoe▻⑤
maro maro locative
Lvnmwaroa
Tnmmero
outside
Li-aneve lema mwoe, ka maro.They sweep inside the house, and outside too.
Pe li-ko u-ke u-te maro etapu!with Prohibitive etapuBut they forbade you from going out!
see~ke ② ⓐgo out
antonymne lemainside
masabuko masaᵐbuko noun
Fish
Humpnose big-eye breamMonotaxis grandoculis.
masasa masasa noun, relational
Lvnmerene
Anatomy
chest
masasa enemy chest
seewaerobreast
mata1 mata noun, relational
Lvnmala
Tnmkamae
POc*mata
1man, animaleyes
Mata ene tevie i-meli.[lit. My eyes on one side hurt] One of my eyes is painful.
Ene ni-mede kaipa tae, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene!I'm not lying to you, I saw it with my own eyes!
Mata ene i-mokoiu.[my eyes are asleep] I'm feeling sleepy.
Mata ini kilo.She's blind.
2foll. by motion or directional verblook, direction of the eyes as they look
Mata da i-koie ne moe ponu la-romo.[their eyes went into the house] They looked into the house and then saw it.
Mata i-katau tetawene na!Observe carefully [lit. let your eyes follow] these drawings!
3face
synonymtanoma
4grammatical subject of ~ledi ‘be hungry’
Mata ene i-ledi.I feel hungry!
5s.th.opening, passage; hole
mata pelenet mesh
mataruene opening of door, doorway
synonymmoboehole
mata ero noun
hole of creekwater spring, source
6cover for an opening, hence lid+
synonymdonga
mata2 mata noun, relational
1plantsprout, seedling, shoot, offshoot
mata balesprout of breadfruit tree
mata luro germinated coconut
La-tabe mata ka la-lui la-do i-katau ngogoro.kaori treeThey collected shoots, and began to plant them around the island.
mata buletaro shoot
synonymmatañasucker
synonymjiesucker
synonymtongosucker
2objecttip, point
mata diro tip of arrow
~mata3 (i·)mata verb, transitive
rock ‹baby›
Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
matabuko mataᵐbuko noun
Cf. mata ①▻⑤ ‘opening’
Naut
navigable passage in the vicinity of an island, giving access to the shore: channel, strait
Matabuko iadapa Lovono placename
channel of the Lovono peoplename of the strait between the islands of Banie and Teanu
matabulugo mataᵐbuluᵑgo noun
Fish
Two-lined breamsScolopsis bilineatus.
mata bute mata ᵐbute noun
Flora
taro sproutk.o. plant with red leaves (Euphorbiaceae)Homalanthus spp.
📘 Used for medicinal purposes (tongolukilo).
mata eo mateo mat’ eo
Ainterjection
your eyeslook out! beware!
Bconstruction
beware, make sure (that not, na ③, nara)
Mata eo na u-le ne tevie tawo.Make sure you don't walk on that side.
A-lebie pon, mata eo na u-ajau ene ne-dobuo!As you're bathing, make sure you don't get me wet!
Mat’ eo nara kape u-wasi ñe idi ’tapu.Be careful not to give (the secret) away.
synonym~romo ⓒ
matagese mataᵑgese noun
Fish
Barred SpinefootSiganus doliatus.
mataiko mataiko noun
Cf. (?) mata ①▻⑤ ‘opening’
Naut
navigable passage: strait, channel
Vilisao i-botongo se mataiko ponu.The tornado was blocking the passage.
Li-ka ne mataiko Paiu ponu, dapa li-te takoie ponu, ne kulumoe pon.As they were [sailing] through the Paiou channel, some men were waiting for them on the coast, on land.
synonymbenoe
matailo matailo noun
Lvnpie
Tnmpipi
Cf. mata ①▻⑤ ‘opening’
3smatailo iape
Anatomy
vulgwomanvulva
Matailo iono enaka!from a man to a womanI want your sex!
synonymtabuio
contrasts withisepenis
matakilo matakilo noun
Lvnmala-vegise
Tnmkamae-vae
blind person
mata luro mata luro noun
Lvnmala vedue
Tnmmae vadua
Flora
germinated coconutCocos nucifera.
see lexical list atluro
mata moe matamoe noun
mata ①▻⑤ ‘opening’ + moe ‘house’
area in front of house, forecourt
ne mata moe 'nonein my forecourt
synonymmevele
matamulue matamulue noun
Flora
k.o. tree, perhaps:Semecarpus spp.
📘 Used for medicinal purposes (tongolukilo).
matamulue vao noun
wild matamuluevariety of the former, found in the bush
mata mwaele mata mʷaele noun
Sea
yellow eyesRed-eyed crabEriphia sebana.
mataña mataɲa noun
Lvnuie
Tnmtonge
taro+shoot, sucker
mataña jebutetaro shoot
synonymjie
synonymtongo
matapiene matapiene noun
mata (?) + piene (?)
way of life; behaviour
Mata piene pon, i-wene moli teve dapa.That way of life was easy to them.
Li-waivo idi wopine kula pe li-sube ñe matapiene kula.initiates’ clubhouseThey teach those initiates who may have erred in their behaviour.
seeimaluolife
mataruene mataruene matarone noun
Tnmmarone
Architecture
doorway: entrance of a house, where the door (ruene) stands; somet. door
Ni-woi tanoma ene ne matarone.I banged my forehead on the door.
Ba-te ne mataruene pon.We'll stay in the doorway.
aero ne matarone noun
Architecture
limit of the doorwaythreshold
matasigo matasiᵑgo noun
Sea
Turban shellTurbo spp.
Mata Teva mata teva proper noun
Mythology
four eyesname of a Spirit (tamate), with four antenna-like eyes (bemata)
see lexical list attamate
Mata Tilu mata tilu proper noun
Mythology
two eyesname of a Spirit (tamate), with two antenna-like eyes (bemata)
see lexical list attamate
matavo matavo noun
Lvnmalave
water spring
matavo pe i-ovo i-kea bubbling spring
seeiaeroriver
mate mate particle
still
main entrymamote
mateaki maʧaki noun
Sea
green snailTurbo marmoratus.
📘 This mollusc is commonly eaten.
matiki matiki noun
first element in the name of certain stars
seekanimorostar
Matiki Moro noun
Daylight Starthe Morning Star, Venus
Matiki Moro ka i-vene.The morning star had risen (in the sky).
Matiki Bwogo noun
Night Starthe Evening Star
mavanga mavaŋa noun, relational
the middle of ‹several people›, amongst
Lupo i-vio ne mavanga idi.Lupo was standing in the middle of the crowd.
mave mave noun
Flora
cockscomb plant (Amaranthaceae)Amaranthus tricolor.
mawene mawene noun
a coarse mat, woven in coconut leaves (opp. bete, pandanus mat)
Kape i-la mawene i-kamai i-tate.She can take a (coconut-leaf) mat and lay it on the ground.
seetemabetesimple mat
see lexical list atuie luro
me1 me coordinator
and
uña momoso me damelikowomen and children
ai’ iape me ete iape.her parents [her father and her mother]
añaña longe me labarosmall firewood and coconut coir
visone me puro ka malebua bow with darts and stunning arrows
Li-kanu buioe me puluko.They would chew areca nuts with betel leaves.
synonymka ①
me2 me
Lvnme
Tnmme
Asubordinator
Grammar
1purposivePurpose subordinator: in order to, so that
U-ko ruene me ne-ke!Open the door so I can go out.
U-ka me la-le na!Come, let's go!
Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro, me i-botongo temaka.They put up taboo signs on the seashore, to protect the area (from poachers).
2with adjective predicatesforms the causative
Li-tabe i-le i-wene ne aeve me kokoro.They bring it out to lie in the sun so it dries up.
Kava li-totoe, li-wete me wamtaka.You dice up the kava, you grind it into small bits [lit. grind it so it's small].
derivativeme kape
Bpreposition
1for ‹s.th.›, taking ‹s.th.› as a goal
Li-viane tepapa me aña ini.They jump on the (dancing) boards for the sound it makes.
2in resultative constructionso it becomes X(change s.th.) into X
Li-ejau iadiro peini otovo me iebe.You can turn (a bunch of) sago midribs into a broom.
Dapa Iura li-la vesevelae li-iu me viko.People in Vanuatu thread cone shells into shellmoney.
me3 me possessive classifier
Lvnme
Tnmme
POc*ma-
1possessive classifier for drinks
ero me enemy (glass of) water
synonymenaka
Anatomy
2rarepossessive classifier for s.o.'s breasts (male, or espec. female)
Besungale ini emele ero me ini biouro.mythologyBesungale is a woman with long breasts.
me4 me intensifier
intensifier of exclamatory construction ebele ⓑ and ebel’ ini ‘beautiful, great’
Ebele kuo me!What a beautiful boat!
Ebel’ ini me!That's really wonderful!
synonymtadoe ⓑ
mebele meᵐbele noun
Tnmmabale
Fauna
1worm
Fauna
2sea cucumberHolothuriidae spp.
Li-sava webwe li-lui, li-sava mebele.They buy troca shells, they buy sea cucumbers…
mebeli meᵐbeli noun
Lvnmebeli
POc*ᵐbeᵐbe
Entomology
butterflyLepidoptera spp.
~mede (i·)meⁿde verb, transitive
1lead ‹s.o.›, whether in motion or in action
Buro pe li-mede idi ñei.It's a song for leading (the dancers).
2espmislead, deceive, lie to ‹s.o.›
U-mede kupa etapu!Don't deceive us!
Ñara kape ne-med’ eo!I wouldn't want to mislead you (by making a mistake).
Ene ni-mede kaipa tae, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene!I'm not lying to you, I saw it with my own eyes!
3lure ‹fish+› with a bait, hence bait ‹fish›, angle for fish
Kape le-la none me le-mede ñe namuko.We'll take some food and use it to lure the fish.
seetemounubait
see~iui teukoangle for fish
medebe meⁿdeᵐbe adjective
soft-fleshed fruit: Pometia teno, breadfruit baleripe, ready to eat
see lexical list atmoso ①
medigo meⁿdiᵑgo adjective
Lvnmeniga
Tnmmidiga
POc*maⁿriⁿriŋ
1cold
ero medigocold water
2figpeace of mind, tranquillity
Nga pe-le, pe-lui pana etapu, pe-lui medigo.proverbIn life, don't go around with heat [anger]; you go around with cool [peace].
mediro meⁿdiro noun
Flora
Victory leaf (Agavaceae)Cordyline fruticosa.
megilo meᵑgilo noun
lightning in the sky
seeioluluthunder
me kape me kape subordinator
Grammar
1purposivePurpose subordinator: in order to, so that
Li-vo aero i-dai, me kape le-mako ne to.They erected a fence around (the village area), for us to dance in the middle.
Li-te ne pwama iaero re ka li-ko me kape li-apilo toñaki.They stayed by the river, with the plan to build a ship.
synonym~ko me kape
2after verb of will(want) that (V): equivalent of a subjunctive
I-ko me kap’ emel’ iape pon ta.He wanted her to become his wife.
Ene awa ene ni-ko me kape l-apilo sekele.I want them to work at their gardens.
derivative~ko kapewant (that)
3raretemporaluntil
Li-mako i-le i-le i-le – me kape bwogo.They danced on and on – until night was ready to fall.
melevele melevele noun
1climatic disaster leading to famine; hence famine, massive and unexpected food shortage in a population
Tepoe, pi-ejau peini melevele.We prepare 'tepoe' biscuits in case of a disaster.
Velebie peini otovo, peini melevele pine.Sago starch is good in case of a major famine.
Komoudo, va li-vai kokoro me peini melevele.Clam shells are commonly dried in the fire, and preserved in case of a famine.
seeaponocyclone
vilo peini melevele noun
plant for disaster‘famine food’: plant that is not ordinarily used as a staple, yet is known to be edible enough to be consumed in case of crop shortage or disaster
Flora
2metona shrub (Verbenaceae) whose food was traditionally consumed in case of famineVitex trifolia.
melevoko melefoko noun
Geo
cliff
Ero i-abu ne melevoko.cascadeThe river is falling from the cliff.
seegilitahill
~meli (i·)meli verb, intransitive
Lvn~meli
Tnm~male
body parthurt, be painful
Basa ene i-meli.My head aches.
Die ini i-meli.[Her back hurts.] She's having labour contractions.
Nara sa i-meli!Make sure you don't get tummy ache (i.e. don't end up heartbroken!)
melia melia noun
Cf. ~meli ‘hurt, be painful’
pain
Nganae kape li-lengi melia dapa ñe tae.ParadiseNothing can cause them any pain.
meliko meliko noun
Lvnmelika
Tnmuneida
children: irregular plural of menu or apali ‘child’
da-tilu meliko wamtakatwo small children
MorphologyAlmost always preceded by plural clitic da=.
main entrydameliko
memia1 memia noun, relational
Tnmmimie
Anatomy
tongue
memia matailo noun
Anatomy
vulgtongue of vulvaclitoris
memia2 memia adjective
Sbj = ije ‘teeth’feel a bitter taste
Ije ene memia.I feel a bitter taste.
Dapa pe li-anu kava, li-e vebe ñe ponu, me kape ije dapa memia etapu.Kava drinkers eat cutnut right after it, to take away the bitter taste. [lit. for fear their teeth might taste-bitter]
~mene (i·)mene verb, intransitive
Lvn~sapene
1dislike, not want s.th.
Ero pana na ni-mene.I don't want that tea.
Awa eo i-viane? – Tae, ni-mene!Do you want it? – No, I don't.
2reject, refuse; say no
“U-ka me la-le na!” Emele pon i-mene.“Come, let's go!” But the woman refused.
3be tired of, fed up with ‹s.th.›
A-mene pe u-e none ponu?Aren't you tired of eating that food?
men’ ie anuele menje anwele noun
Birds
baby turtleRuddy TurnstoneArenaria interpres.
menu menu men’ noun
Lvnapali / nisili
Tnmweku
1smenu one2smen’ iono3smen’ iape
1child, baby
Menu ka i-re tengiro.The baby was shedding tears.
Ne metele tilu-tae kape i-ve menu.She will give birth in August.
synonymapali
Kin
2relationalchild ‹of s.o.›: son, daughter
Ni-p' ene tamwase ñe men' iamela.Congratulations on your baby!
Ini i-lebie men’ iape.She's bathing her child.
menu emele ie teliki[child female of chief] the chief's daughter
Kin
3sometclassificatory childson-in-law, daughter-in-law
contrasts withukuparent-in-law
4raresmall ‹of animal›
men’ ie anuele baby turtle (name of a bird)
synonymneido
menuko1 menuko noun
Lvnmenuka
Tnmmanuke
POc*manuk
Fauna
1bird
Vono i-sodo, ka menuko i-mo.The dawn came, and birds began singing.
kasule we menuko [lit. vine for birds] k.o. creeper
2sometanimal
Ne ngogoro uña menuko abia, ka pe-romo p-ajau!There are many animals in the woods, be careful!
Naut
3canoefigurehead, typic. in the shape of a bird, at the prow of a canoe; hence prow
Bavede i-vio ne menuko.The sail stands on the prow.
see lexical list atkuo
menuko2 menuko noun
Lvnmenuka
1friend, companion
menuko 'non' tilumy two friends
Awisi pine, menuko!Thanks so much, my friend!
Pe-madau etapu, ponu menuko iaba.Don't be scared, this is our friend.
Kiapa dapa Frans ka menuko.predicateWe and the French, we are friends.
seetieli
2espboyfriend or girlfriend, in a romantic sense
Ka i-te teve menuko?Has she got a boyfriend already?
mengela meŋela noun, relational
1top ‹of tree, vilo
I-le i-toe kuo iape ne ngogoro: kape i-toe i-abu i-wene, i-toe mengela mina awoiu, ka li-la longe mina.He went to cut a canoe in the forest: first he chopped it down; then he cut off the top; then he cut out the wood.
synonymwowo ①
2end ‹of s.th., esp. wooden›
mengela blatenothe top end of the ritual pole
Ni-toe mengela kuo.I've carved the end of the canoe.
seepongo ①top
3piece ‹of wood, vilo›, stick
Viko pe Niteni li-ejau ñe viavia menuko, li-la abwa bale li-lateli ne mengela vilo.When Santa Cruz people make their money with bird feathers, they use glue to stick them to a piece of wood.
synonymvilo▻④
meñeviro meɲeviro adjective
Lvnmevire
Tnmmeviri
POc*manipis
thin
antonymabiaini
metae metae
Lvnmetaie
Tnmtaea, taeia
Aparticle
often combined with kape ‘irrealis, future’irrealis negation
1won't
Labiou metae.It won't take long.
2can't: be unable to
Tepao 'naka i-makoe, kape ne-makui ñe metae.My fishing gun is broken, I can't use it for fishing.
Kape ne-vete susuko metae.I'd be unable to tell the exact story.
3can't: be unlikely to
Kape u-tavie metae.You can't get sick.
4can't: not be allowed to
Uk' one tilu, kape ne-vete enga da metae.naming tabooMy in-laws, I can't say their names out loud.
Leka, kape u-labu ebele ini metae.With your (opp.-sex) cross-cousin, you are not allowed any body contact.
5rareshouldn't
Kap' i-wene metae.It shouldn't be there.
Bpredicative
used absolutelyto no avail; no way
Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
Dapa ne temotu tilu pon li-la kuo li-ko me le-wai i-koie tetakoie: metae!The people on the two islets took to their canoes, hoping to paddle towards the (main) island – to no avail.
~metei (i·)metei ~mete
Averb, transitive
s.o.shy away from ‹s.o.›; show an appropriate sense of modesty before ‹s.o.›
U-met' ene etapu!Don't shy away from me!
Mwasu ponu, ini mwaliko pe i-metei dapa ne ini tae.That Mwasu was a person who felt no shame with his relatives.
see~labu motororespect
Bverb, reflexive
reflexive structureshy of oneselfbe shy, timid; shy away (from, ñe)
U-met' eo ñe ene etapu!Don't shy away from me!
Emel' enone i-mete ini pe i-rom dokta.My wife is too shy to see the doctor.
Stanley i-met' ini tamwase pe i-mako, ra pi-tedie ini.Stanley was too shy to dance, so we encouraged him.
metele metele noun
Lvnmele
Tnmmaloula
< (?)°mataulaPOc*mataeye, spot*pulanmoon
1moon
kulaña metele half moon; semi-circle
Noma li-katau ñe metele po li-romo metele i-ka ra ra ra i-tomoe, li-ko “Ka metele iune pon!”In the olden days, people would follow the changes of the moon; and when it finally disappeared, they would say “Alright, it's been one moon!”
2month
noma metele[face of the month] end of the month
ne metele iote ka i-le awoiulast month
ne metele tilu-tae[in eighth month] in August
Li-apilo toñaki awoiu, bara i-vagas’ metele tuo nga ponu.The building of the ship must have taken about six months.
~kovi metele [lit. miss months] be pregnant
seeebieveyear
meteliko meteliko noun
Tnmmanlika
sky
Li-romo i-katau vangana kanmoro iu ne meteliko.We watch the light of the stars up in the sky.
~metelu (i·)metelu verb, intransitive
Lvn~mwelesu
ship+sink
U-bei i-metelu i-wene ne mataiko ponu!invocation to a godSquash (this ship) and let it sink in this very gulf!
Temotu tilu ponu i-metelu.The two islets were engulfed (in the disaster).
metene metene adjective
Lvnmenene
Tnmmadene
blade+sharp
mevele mevele noun
front yard: private, open-air area in front of a house
Ni-bo ajekele mina mevele 'none.I have collected rubbish from my front yard.
synonymmata moe
mevia mevia noun, relational
Tnmmove
1smevia ene3smevia ini
breathing, air
Kape i-le i-le i-le– nga mevia dapa tae, ka le-re mevia dapa.pushing the canoeThey would go on like that; and when they were out of breath, they would take a rest.
~re mevia verb, reflexive
Tnm~re move
release airbreathe; hence take some rest, have a pause
U-re mevia eo mijaka!Take some rest!
Le-re mevia dapa awoiu, mwaliko pon kap’ i-tabo i-vete: “Ia! Takoli! Ia ia, takoli ! ia ia!”Once they had taken a rest, the leader shouted again: “Yo-heave-ho, let's go! Yo-heave-ho, let's go!”
meviko meviko noun
Tnmdaluba
Fish
sea eel, esp. moray eelMuraenidae spp.
contrasts withngiloriver eel
meviko lekele noun
Fish
eel flying-foxGiant morayGymnothorax javanicus.
meviko takataka meviko.takataka noun
Fish
striped eelsea krait, seasnakeLaticauda semifasciata.
Ni-le ne revo nanana ni-romo meviko takataka.I was at sea today, and saw a sea krait.
meviro mefiro noun
war, conflict
see~viafight
War in Vanikoromeviro
Noma, dapa Lovono li-ejau meviro li-kamai Tanema li-lui Teanu. Meviro awoiu, ka li-te ne basavono wako.
In the old days, the Lovono tribe used to wage war with Tanema, and with Teanu. When the wars ended, they finally lived in peace.
~mi (i·)mi verb, intransitive
Lvn~mimi
Tnm~mimi
POc*mimiR
urinate
miakaia miakaja noun, relational
Tnmmaskae
smell ‹of s.th.›
miakaia mwaelesmell of ginger
synonymmie
mibile miᵐbile noun
mie mie
Tnmmaskae
Anoun, relational
smell ‹of s.th.›
Ni-lengi mie namuko.I smell fish smell.
synonymmiakaia
Bpredicative
(be) smelly
Li-e ngatene pe mie, li-ko “te masi”.The food they eat is smelly, they call it “te masi”.
mijaka miᶮɟaka postverb
Lvnmañoko
Tnmmagako
freqa little, a bit
main entryamjaka
~mikae (i·)mikae ~mukae
Lvn~wo, ~ñese
Tnm~jive
Averb, intransitive
Cf. ~kae ‘do how?’
1interrogative verbdo what?
U-le u-mikae?What are you going to do?
I-mukae ne eo?What did he do to you?
see~kaedo how?
see~ve ①be why?
Discourse
2tag question… or what? Uttered when hesitating about a proper verb
Bwara ka li-ae tanoe we, ka li-mukae?They must have dug the ground, or what?
Bverb, transitive
do what to ‹s.o., s.th.›
Na kape kupa pe-mikae toñaki na?What shall we do with that ship?
miko miko noun
earthquake
Nobwogo miko i-la i-wai moe ne.Last night an earthquake shook the houses here.
mikodo mikoⁿdo noun
Fish
Forktail rabbitfishSiganus argenteus.
mimione mimione adjective
Lvnmimiane
Tnmmamiene
(?) POc*[ma]Raqanlight in weight
1dry
Uña namolo enone po ai-abu ka mimione? – Tae, mamote i-dobuo.My clothes that you washed, are they dry yet? – Not yet, they're still wet.
antonym~dobuo
2light, of light weight
Nga le-vilu ñe kuo, we le-vesu bavede ñi nga ponu, wako pe mimione.If people travel on their canoe, or sail on it, it's better for (the wood) to be light.
antonymmotoro
3figof minor importance, futile; unimpressive, mediocre
Dapa wopine na li-vete piene ne “ebele ini!” tamwase, pe li-ko motoro. Ia piene “wako” pon, mimione.The elders very often use this expression “it's wonderful”: they find it a nice [lit. heavy] word. Whereas a word like “alright” is a bit too common. [it's light]
antonymmotoro
mina mina
Lvnmena
Tnmvade
Apreposition
Ablative preposition: from, out of
Somu tamwase mina kupa.locative senseIt's too far away from us.
Ka i-te ra i-le i-madau ka i-kotu mina dapa i-le i-te ne gilita ponu.He got scared and ran away from them, all the way to the hill.
Le-wamu piene mina dapa.figurativeLet's keep our discussion secret from them.
Badverb
from itanaphoric counterpart of the Ablative preposition: ‘from it’, ‘of it’; hence away, off
Li-la uo li-ta bele mina.They're peeling off the skin of yams.
Li-loko aero we anive, li-si kangele i-ke mina.They collect cone shells, and cut off the mollusc part.
I-le i-toe kuo iape ne ngogoro: kape i-toe i-abu i-wene, i-toe mengela mina awoiu, ka li-la longe mina.He went to cut a canoe in the forest: first he chopped it down; then he cut off the top; then he dug out the wood.
Nga u-katei namuko iote, u-toe dekele mina.If you catch a fish, you must chop off its tail.
~mini mini
Lvn~mini
Tnm~mika
Averb, intransitive
1raregive
📘 The sense ‘give’ is now expressed by a serial verb ~la ~mini, or ~lamini.
2celebrate, hold ‹ritual›
derivative~mini ngapienehold a festival
derivative~mini aña (dameliko)perform an initiation ritual
Bsecond verb, intransitive
1after ~la ‘take’(take V) and give it to ‹s.o.›
Dapa li-la laviko, namolo, kangele teuko, li-la li-mini kupa.They would take pearls, clothes, fish hooks, and give them to us.
derivative~la ~mini[take and] give
2with other verbs(do V) for ‹s.o.›, for the benefit of ‹s.o.›. Equivalent of a Dative
U-ko ruene u-mini ini.Open the door for her.
Kape le-wabe le-mini dapa po li-anu kava.They would serve (fruit) to those who were drinking kava.
Ni-la piene ono me ne-botongo ne-mini kaipa.I’m recording your language so I can take care of it for you.
Gi' one iote i-bo kuo i-mini dapa ne kulumoe.My uncle creates canoes for the villagers.
tanoe pe li-nabe li-mini dapathe territory that had been assigned to them
Li-le li-la ngatene li-mini dapa damala.BlackbirdingThey travelled to work for (the benefit of) White people.
Dapa iupa noma li-atevo piene peini Laperus li-mini kupa.Our elders told the story of Lapérouse to us.
Li-tomoli li-mini idi.malefactiveThey lie to people.
synonymseDative
minga miŋa
(?) POc*ŋaican
Ainterrogative
when? in the future
“Minga kape ba-le?” I-ko “Mobo.”“When will you leave?” – “Tomorrow.”
contrasts withpenangawhen, in the past
Badverb
one day, in the future
Mou kape ra minga basavono, wako kape pe-tabo pe-ka.Wait till the day we come back here.
Minga kape le-sune angede ovene po Laperus i-si ponu.One day someone will find the message that was written by Lapérouse.
synonymmoro iote
miro miro noun
Fish
cuttlefish, squidSepia sp.
mjaka mᶮɟaka postverb
a little
main entryamjaka
~mnate (i·)mnate verb, intransitive
be lazy
synonymmagobe
mo1 mo particle
immediately; as soon as
I-ka i-ka i-ka ponu, dapa kula mo ka li-wo.But as they came closer and closer, some of the villagers immediately ran away!
Da-tilu po la-vili kava le-wabe mo le-iumu le-lui teve Teliki Makumoso.Squeezing the kava, they filled up (the container) and immediately served it to the High Chief.
see~iumudo first
~mo2 (i·)mo verb, intransitive
Lvn~mu
1animalmake noise, call
Vono i-sodo, ka menuko i-mo.The dawn came, and birds began singing.
2humantalk, utter words, considered as a general faculty (vs ~vete ‘say s.th.’)
I-mui pe i-mo.disabled childHe cannot speak.
Ka i-mo tae!accident+He cannot speak any more.
U-tau uro, u-mo samame.incantationAs you burn the magic charcoal, you talk to it.
synonym~vete piene
~mo korone verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + korone ‘strong’
talk strongspeak with a stern tone of voice, esp. in giving a lesson or firm advice; hence scold, argue (with s.o., se)
Ni-mo korone se ni-ko me i-tabo i-ejau etapu.I firmly warned him not to do it again.
Na teliki ka i-mo korone se da.Now the village chief is scolding both of them.
~mo labiou verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + labiou ‘lengthy’
talk lengthytalk for a long time
~mo ~mabui verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + ~mabui ‘be slow’
talk slowspeak slowly; whisper
~mo pine verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + pine ‘big’
talk bigspeak with a loud voice, e.g., when in anger
Awa ini i-aka, i-mo pine.He was angry, talking loudly.
~mo susuko verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + susuko ‘straight’
talk straightspeak properly or appropriately
Ini i-mo susuko.He spoke properly ~ He made a fair speech.
~mo tamwase verb, intransitive
~mo ② ‘talk’ + tamwase ‘a lot’
talk a lotbe talkative, talk too much
mobo1 moᵐbo
Lvnkimwe
Tnmmabo
<°ᵐboᵐboPOc*ᵐboŋi
Anoun
archmorning
main entrymomobo
Blocative
tomorrow
“Minga kape ba-le?” I-ko “Mobo.”“When will you leave?” – “Tomorrow.”
seemoro iotethe next day
mobo2 moᵐbo noun
Tnmvalume
Flora
breadfruit+large seed, stone
mobo peini balebreadfruit seeds
synonymvese▻①
~mobo3 (i·)moᵐbo verb, intransitive
<°ᵐboᵐboPOc*ᵐboRe
dream
moboe moᵐboe noun
hole, opening
Kape kangele iawo i-ke ne moboe voko pon.The flames will come out of the hole between the stones.
Noma li-madau pe moe moboe abia ene, li-ko na kape idi le-wete dapa ne visone me puro.Our ancestors used to avoid having too many openings in their houses, for fear of being shot with arrows.
synonymmwa▻②
moboe voko noun
stone holecavity in the reef, where puddles of rain or sea water form naturally
Noma, nuduko, ero pe i-wene ne moboe voko ne noma.In the past, our mirrors were just water puddles in a stone hole on the reef.
moboro moᵐboro noun
Tnmmwoila
Flora
k.o. lawyer-cane or rattanCalamus spp.
I-vio ka li-wabeiu ñe moboro teva, me blateno i-vio, susuko, ne to.They used four rattan canes as props, so that the pole could stand firmly in the middle.
seewoworo
seeviapwenereed
mobosigie moᵐbosiᵑgie noun
Fauna
k.o. green lizard
moe moe mwoe noun
Lvnmoe
Tnmnalama
POc*Rumaq
1house: tradit. wooden construction with bamboo wallings and sago thatch
li-vo mwoebuild a house
ebele moethe structure of the house
telemwoe peini mwoehouse wallings
ne lema moeinside the house
ne pwa moeunderneath the house
ne mata moein the frontyard
Pi-wete otovo pi-ko pe-songai moe.We are making the roofing to repair our house.
moe pe li-apinu ene[the house they cook in] cooking house, separate kitchen
Parts of a housemwoe
mata moe frontyard
mataruene doorway, entrance
ruene door
telemoe wall, walling
tokoli raised-floor structure
tapaia buioe floor
pwa tokoli space under stilted house
ebele moe structure of a house
nengele moe components of a house*
2genstructure or place analogous to a house, in its shape or its function
Moe iaba pwo; iote iu, ie mwaliko iote.apartment in a storey houseOur flat is located below; as for the one above, it belongs to someone else.
Tepuke ponu, kuo pine; moe aplaka pon, ne pongo kuo pon.The ‘tepuke’ ship is a large canoe; it has a small cabin, on top of the ship.
moe etapu [holy house] church
moe ma tadoe the lair of Spirits
mwoe ie telupea pigeon’s nest
moe etapu moetapu mwoe etapu noun
Lvnmwoe etapu
Christianity
holy housechurch
Ene ni-le ni-tamava ne mwoe 'tapu.I went to pray in the church.
moe ma tadoe moe ma taⁿdoe mom tadoe mam tadoe noun
Anthropology
gods’ lairplace (typic. cave), whether covered or not, haunted by spirits or deities (tadoe); hence heathen temple
Ka ponu li-la viko, li-lui li-lateli ne moe ma tadoe.They took the ritual money, and deposited it in the gods’ lair.
AnthropologyAncestral priests (taluaito) are represented visiting this place to worship (~tamava) their gods, and send prayers or imprecations.
moioe moioe adjective
Lvnmesoe
Tnmmomea
Food
cooked, done
jebute moioecooked taro
U-tau awoiu po moioe, u-ovei pe u-e.Once you've cooked it and it's done, you can eat it.
see~taucook
antonymmotoeraw
~mokavase (i·)mokavase verb, intransitive
worship
Tadoe ponu, li-mokavase.That god (Tangteala) was the one they worshipped.
synonym~tamavaworship, pray
see~kilase▻①invoke
moko moko mwoko noun
1coral; esp. large coral formation
Basavono na toñaki ka moko.wreckToday the ship has turned into coral reef.
Tepungo pon voko wopine li-karau ne mwoko ka uña viko me komudo li-vio ene.Coral rocks are large boulders that grow on the reef bed, and that's where shells and clamshells grow.
synonymviro ②
2flat reef forming the shore of an island
Moko ka i-ma.[The reef is dried up] It's low tide.
synonymnoma ②
synonymtouro
moko taniboro noun
dry area on the reef, out of the sea's reach
Dapa kula li-katei noma nuduro tilu ponu, li-koioi tetakoie, i-le i-vene ne moko taniboro.Some people pull the two ends of the scareline towards the shore, to a dry zone.
~mokoiu (i·)mokoju verb, intransitive
Lvn~mepeu
Tnm~matou
POc*maturuR
1sleep
Kape ne-le ne-mokoiu. – Susuko!I'm going to sleep. – Alright!
Li-atevo iepiene pe noma, li-oburo, li-vongo ka li-mokoiu.We tell old stories, we sing, we eat and then we go to sleep.
2eyes, matawink, blink; hence feel sleepy
Mata ini i-mokoiu.She winked.
Mata ene i-mokoiu.I'm blinking / I'm feeling sleepy.
moli moli
Lvnmoli
Tnmmano
Aadjective
1empty
Moe enone moli.My house is empty / is free.
Li-bu awoiu. Iune i-te tae. Kulumoe Pakare moli.mythEverybody died: nobody survived. The village of Pakare was emptied.
synonymviñe
2deprived of any binding rule: hence free, unconstrained, random
Kava, pe li-anu moro moli tae.Kava is not something you drink randomly [lit. just any day].
3s.o.foreigner, stranger
emele molia foreign woman
4rareearly
momobo moliearly tomorrow morning
Bpostverb
1in an unconstrained way: freely, easily
~wene moli [lie unconstrained] be easy
~te moli verb, intransitive
s.o.sit/live unconstrainedbe free (opp. be busy, or married, etc.)
A-te moli?Are you free?
2without expected effects: hence (do) in vain, for nothing; with no satisfying result
Li-vo moe moli.They built a house in vain. (it's useless)
Ni-sava none moli.I bought food for nothing. (it was wasted)
3hence(do/buy) for free, with nothing in exchange
Program kula idi li-la moli.Some software programs are free [lit. people give them unconstrained].
Ini i-langatene moli.He works for free.
4eat, drink+without expected ingredients: hence minimally, simply, in a sober or pure fashion
Ni-anu moli.waterI'm drinking it pure (=without adding sugar etc.).
Ni-vongo moli.I'm eating ‘minimally’ (=only vegetables, but no meat).
5with no binding rules or ties: hence randomly, aimlessly, haphazardly
~le moli verb, intransitive
serialised after a verbgo aimlesslybe random; go with no specific rules; hence not matter, etc.
main entry~lemoli
6only, exclusively
Damala moli li-te ne lema.Only Westerners can go inside.
synonymñoko
moloe1 moloe adjective
Lvnwamoene
Tnmmanobeila
POc*meRaq
red
uo moloered yam
jeboro moloe red Coleus
nidilo moloered ant
~moloe2 (i·)moloe verb, intransitive
Lvn~telu
Tnm~l(u)mota
1wander; stroll around
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Domesticated pigs are fed in the village, but wild pigs wander about in the forest.
Laperusi vana i-moloe ne nom' ole take ne.Lapérouse used to stroll around along that sand beach over there.
2play (with, ne)
Li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat.We drink tea, we chew areca nuts, and we play cards.
molongo moloŋo adjective
broken asunder, split
Toñaki iadapa ebele nga molongo.Their ship had its hull split in two.
see~arevosplit s.th.
see~avosplit s.th.
momobo momoᵐbo locative
Lvnmevetime
Tnmmamabo
Redup. mobo ①
morning
Momobo wako!Good morning!
Dapa li-aiu momobo li-vongo adapa.They woke up in the morning and took their breakfast.
see lexical list atmoro ①day
momoso momoso noun
Lvnmemelue
Tnmmamawe
POc*matuqa
1old woman: a respectful term
antonymamosoold man
2adult woman (opp. emele aplaka ‘young girl’)
Momoso!respectful addressMadam!
uña momoso me damelikowomen and children
Ini ka emele aplaka tae, ini ka momoso iote.She's not a young girl any more, she has become a woman now.
seeemelewoman
seeviñeviwomen
Kin
3formal registerpossessedwife
Momoso iono, ini bworobworo, we koro?Your wife, is she black or white?
mona mona
Lvnnasa pwene
Tnmnasa bwau
Aadjective
broad, wide
antonymneronarrow
Bnoun
breadth, width
Mona ini pine.[its width is great] It is very wide.
Mona tae.[it has no width] It is narrow.
monone monone noun
Lvnmanane
Tnmkolveila
poss. classifierenaka
1a sturdy, round wooden mortar used in cooking, esp. to pound taros and Canarium almonds (vongoro) during the preparation of the pudding (mama ②)
I-tau jebute moioe ponu, i-loko i-ka i-le ne monone ka i-wete. I-wete awoiu ka i-ejau mama ada.Once the taro was cooked, she put it in a mortar and began to pound it. When she finished pounding it, she made the pudding.
Modernity
2a sturdy box, typic. made of wood, where to stow things; chest, trunk
Kupa pi-kamai monone apilaka ne pe-ko me pe-kamai i-wene tev' eo.We have brought here this small chest, with the idea to leave it with you.
moro1 moro noun
Lvnmare, mware
(?) POc*ma-raqandaylight
Moments in the daymoro
bogo ; bwogo night; 24-hour day
moro ① ; tomoro day, daylight
vono i-sodo dawn
momobo morning
tomoro wako midday
aeve i-le ; ~le ② ⓐ▻⑤ early afternoon
aeve i-tavali ; ~tavali late afternoon
~la ② ; vonila dusk, evening
nedemo be dark, be night
ne bwogo at night
nobwogo last night
mobo ① tomorrow
pepane yesterday
day, from daybreak (vono i-sodo) to dusk (vonila)
moro abia every day
Li-bo kuo votobo pe i-la moro tete we teva.Making a canoe can take up to three or four days.
moro pe li-ve eothe day when you were born
ne moro po kape le-le le-katei kuo enethe day when they were going to drag the canoe
to moro → tomoromiddle of day → midday → day
contrasts withbwogo ⓐ▻②days, when counting them
derivativemoro ioteone day
derivativemoro wainione day
moro2 moro noun
Fish
Cresent grunterTerapon jarbua.
moro peini pwa motono noun
Fish
moro fish from the oceanOriental sweetlipsPlectorhynchus orientalis.
moro iote moro.iote adverb
1a dayone day, in the past or future
Ra ra, moro iote iawo i-bu.They were living like that, but one day, the fire died out.
synonymmoro waini
2the other daythe next day
Li-tau sekele ponu awoiu, moro iote li-le li-teli avtebe.Once they had burnt their gardens, the next day they planted some taros.
seemomobotomorrow
moro waini moro waini adverb
1a day onceone day, in the past or future
Vana li-atevo eo ka li-ko bwara moro waini kape u-tabo u-vagasi dapa.They often talk about you, and they hope that one day you will visit them again.
synonymmoro iote
2formulaonce upon a time
Moro waini, mwaliko pe Vono.Once upon a time, [there was] a man from Lovono.
moso1 moso adjective
POc*matuqa
Word for ‘ripe’
moso ① ‹tuber, yam, taro, banana+› ripe
~ako▻③ ‹banana+› ripe and sweet
medebe ‹breadfruit, lychee› ripe
~mote ‹dry nuts, canarium› ripe
reviñe ‹areca nut› ripe, ready
1taro, fruit+ripe, well grown, ready to harvest
Jebute ka moso.The taros are ready to harvest.
Udo kata kape ka moso.Bananas are almost ripe.
2figcompound element found in several (now opaque) words referring to old age and maturity: amoso, momoso, makumoso.
moso2 moso adjective
Lvnleve vakane
Tnmlavele apika
POc*mataqu
right hand, right hand side
ma ene mosomy right hand
antonymmouro ①
~mote (i·)mote verb, intransitive
nut+ripe, ready to eat
Ra ra i-le ne to ebieve, vongoro ka i-mote.Time went on, till they reached mid-season: this is when the almonds had finished ripening.
see lexical list atmoso ①
motoe motoe adjective
Lvnmeloe
Tnmmaja, majaia
POc*mataq
Food
1raw, uncooked
Dapa li-e namuko pe motoe.They eat their fish raw.
antonymmoioecooked
2new
Li-pe idi Krismas ka li-pe idi ñe ebieve motoe.Merry Christmas, and best wishes for the New year.
Otovo iupa ka tamwaliko, pi-tabo pi-wete kula motoe.Our roofing has been damaged, we are making [lit. pinning] a new one.
antonymveliaold
motomoro motomoro noun
1wound
Taluaito i-vao motomoro.The doctor pressed on the wound.
Motomoro iono kape wako.Your wound will heal.
poss. classifierenone
2sucker on the tentacles of squids and octopodes
motomoro ie kiñe-biourosuckers of an octopus
motono motono mwotono noun
open sea, deep sea, ocean (opp. revo, sea close to land)
U-da viro awoiu, u-le ne motono ngamuli.As you go across the reef, you reach the open ocean.
U-ovei pe u-wai i-ke i-le teta-ke ne motono.You can paddle out to the open sea.
abwa nga motono“ocean blue” colour
synonymngamuli
seerevosea
motoro motoro adjective
Lvnmelure
Tnmmwaura
1heavy
Pe li-anu kava, ebele idi motoro.When you drink kava, you feel your body is heavy.
antonymmimione
2figimportant, major, significant
Ne-ko ne-viñ' eo ñe piene motoro.I'd like to tell you about an important issue.
Dapa noma, uro we tongolukilo peini ngaten’ motoro i-wen’ tev’ dapa.Our ancestors used magic soot and magic leaves for important matters.
3behaviourrespectful; considerate, esp. towards elders and institutions
Awa ene motoro ñe piene pe a-viñ’ ene.[my mind is heavy…] I give a lot of consideration to your words.
~labu motoro verb, transitive
hold heavybe respectful towards ‹s.o.›, respect
U-labu idi motoro![Take people ‘heavily’] Be respectful to people!
Uk' aidi, li-labu motoro.In-laws are to be respected.
4speechformal, carefully worded; sounding nice, idiomatic
Dapa wopine na li-vete piene ne “ebele ini!” tamwase, pe li-ko motoro. Ia piene “wako” pon, mimione.The elders very often use this expression “it's wonderful”: they find it a nice [lit. heavy] word. Whereas a word like “alright” is a bit too common. [it's light]
antonymmimione
motovo motofo noun
barren, rocky plateau, typic. resulting from a landslide
seevokorock, stone
Ne Motovo Pine placename
Geo
the great plateauname of a spot on the east coast of Banie island, facing Teanu
Ne Motovo Aplaka placename
Geo
the small plateauname of a spot on the east coast of Banie island, facing Teanu; close to the latter
mou mou interjection
Lvnmwau
Tnmma, mao
1wait! hang on!
Mou, le-vongo ko!Wait, let's first have dinner!
Mou, u-tabo!Hang on! Repeat please?
2+ (kape +) irrealis clauselet X happen first: introduces
Mou me ne-iumu ne-le n-ioi teuko ko.Let me first go angling.
Kape le-vongo tae: mou kape le-iumu l-anu kava.We shouldn't eat yet: let us first drink kava.
Mou kape ra minga basavono, wako kape pe-tabo pe-ka.Wait till the day we come back here.
see~ko ④ ⓑwait for ‹s.o.›
seerema(do) in waiting
mouro1 mouro noun
Lvnmwaure
Tnmlavele luola
POc*mauRi
left hand; left side
antonymmoso ②
mouro2 mouro noun, relational
bunch, group, cluster, set
1animalshoal, swarm, gaggle, flock+
mouro paiukoa shoal of surgeonfish
2bananasbunch
mouro udoa bunch of bananas
synonymtaña
mouro3 adjective
Lvnmalagudue
Mythology
preceded with dameliko ‘children’pixies, elves, hobbits: mythological creature of the forest, of short height
dameliko mourosmall pixies
📘 Common figure in the Solomon Islands: cf. the “Manague” and the “Kakamora” on Makira.
synonymmuliabe
movoko mofoko noun
k.o. black rock
Ne Movoko placename
Geo
Black Stone, name of a spot on the east coast of Banie
moworo moworo postverb
up in the air
I-avo moworo.It's hanging in the air.
~mu (i·)mu verb, intransitive
1be smooth
antonymjiejierough
2be slippery
Tokoli i-dobuo pe tebo, ka i-mu tamwase.The bridge is wet due to the rain, it's very slippery.
mubule muᵐbule adjective
unripe
Uña none pon mubule.Those fruits aren't ripe.
~mui (i·)mui verb, transitive
Lvn~moi, ~mwoi
Tnm~muo
1commstatic readingnot know, be ignorant of ‹s.th.›; have no idea (if, ~ko ② ⓑ▻④)
Ia ni-mui, nga u-ium’ u-viñ' ene!I didn't know, you should have first told me!
Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.I don't know what to do.
Ni-mui mijaka.[lit. I'm a bit ignorant] I'm not sure.
📘 ~mui ‘not know’ serves as the suppletive negation of ~ovei ‘know’.
antonym~ovei
2be unable (to do, pe ②▻④+Clause)
I-mui pe i-mo.He cannot speak.
Mamote i-mui pe i-tatale.He's still unable to walk.
Ni-mui pe ni-vete piene adapa.I don't know how to speak their language.
Synt.The subordinate verb can be either Realis or Irrealis.
antonym~ovei
3dynamic readingforget, be unable to remember ‹s.th.›
Dapa pie akapa ka vitoko kape le-mui piene akapa.Our grandchildren will soon forget our language.
antonym~vodo
4forget (to do, pe ②▻④+Clause)
Ka ni-mui pe ni-vete.I forgot to say it.
5rareforget ‹object›, leave behind
Ni-mui temamene 'none i-wene ne moe.I left behind my bag in the house.
muko muko noun
Lvnmuka
Tnmmuka
POc*ñamukmosquito
Entomology
1fly
muk’ tedele noun
Lvnmuka nadele
shit flyk.o. fly
muko pe i-ke idi noun
periphrasis for disambiguationfly/mosquito that bites peoplemosquito
Entomology
2mosquito
Nga uña muko li-ke eo, kape u-akale eo i-le i-le i-vagasi tomoro.If the mosquitoes bite you, you'll scratch yourself till morning.
mule mule noun, kinship
1smul’ one
Kin
affine of same generation (vs. uku)
1ego male or femalesibling-in-law, whether male or female: spouse of o.'s sibling (ZH, BW), or sibling of o.'s spouse (WB, WZ, HB, HZ)
mul' one mwalkotemy brother-in-law
mul' one emelemy sister-in-law
seetielisibling
2spouse of o.'s cross-cousin, cousin by marriage (MBDH, MBSW; FZDH, FZSW; HFZC, WFZC…)
seelekacross-cousin
muliabe muliaᵐbe adjective
Mythology
preceded with dameliko ‘children’pixies, elves, hobbits: mythological creature of the forest, of short height
dameliko muliabesmall pixies
📘 Common figure in the Solomon Islands: cf. the “Manague” and the “Kakamora” on Makira.
synonymmouro ③
mulusa mulusa noun, relational
bamboo+knot
mulusa okorobamboo knot
~mumu (i·)mumu verb, transitive
1covet, desire ‹s.th.›
Ni-mumu none ono.I wish I had your food.
Li-mumu viko.They are greedy [lit. they desire money]
2espfeel sexual desire for ‹s.o.›; fall in love
I-romo i-ko “E!” Ka i-mumu.[lit. He looked, he went “Hey!”] As he saw her, he startled: “Oh!” – he had fallen in love.
mumule mumule adjective
Lvnmumile
Tnmmomoe
1insane, crazy
Basa eo mumule![your head is stupid] You're a fool!
Ata tadoe kap' i-ejau bas' eo mumule.The spirits of Ghosts can make your head go crazy.
antonym~epelesmart
2figcrazy in love, infatuated
Keba ba-mako wako, ene mumule ñe ini tae.We were just dancing, I was not crazy about her!
~mumwoli (i·)mumʷoli adjective
Tnmapara
smooth
antonymdidie
mwa mʷa noun, relational
Lvnue
Tnmkole
Anatomy
1mouth
U-u mwa eo!Wipe your mouth!
bele mwa noun, relational
Anatomy
skin of mouthlips
Bele mwa idi abiaini.when drinking kavaYour lips feel thick.
2opening, hole
mwa tanoehole in the ground
synonymmoboe
mwadoe mʷaⁿdoe noun
Fish
Orangespine UnicornfishNaso lituratus.
mwaele mʷaele
Tnmmia
Anoun
Flora
gingerZingiber officinale.
miakaia mwaelethe smell of ginger
Badjective
yellow
mata mwaele [yellow-eyes] Red-eyed crab
voko mwaele noun
yellow stoneyellow stone (sulphur ?) used as dye
Ka li-loko voko mwaele; awoiu, otovo. Li-tau. Awoiu ponu, ka li-si tetawene.They took some yellow stone; as well as sago leaves, which they cooked [into black color]. Then they began painting ritual designs [on the wall].
~mwagali (i·)mʷaᵑgali verb, intransitive
be disgusted (by s.th., ne), get sick
Ni-mwagali ne none ponu.That food is disgusting!
Dapa ne kulumoe ponu li-e ngatene pe ene ni-mwagali ene.People in that country eat stuff that I just find disgusting.
mwaliko mʷaliko
Lvnlamuka
Tnmanuka
(?) POc*mwaqane
Aadjective
human, as opp. to animals, or to supernatural beings
Eo mwaliko?story of the HeronAre you human?
Ngatene ponu, li-romo nga mwaliko, ia mwaliko tae.SpiritsThose creatures look like they're human, but they are not.
Kupa na kupa mwaliko tae. Ka kaipa mwaliko na ia kupa na ngatene nga na.We are not human. You people are human, but we are creatures like this.
Teliki Makumoso Banie i-waivo idi mwaliko ñe telepakau, ñe maluo.godOur Great Lord Banie instructed people with the Law, with our way of life.
plidi mwaliko
Bnoun
plidi
1non-specific gendera person
Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
die mwaliko pe i-buthe bones of a dead body
Phraseol.While mwaliko can take on a generic or indefinite reading, this meaning is more often achieved using the impersonal pronoun idi, or corresponding 3pl generic subject marker li-▻③.
mwaliko iote noun
a personsomeone, somebody
Ini i-madau i-ko na mwaliko iote i-romo ne.He was afraid someone might see him.
Ni-ko bwara i-mo korone se mwaliko iote.I thought he was angry at someone.
2maleman
mwaliko iote da emel’ iapea man and his wife
momoso ie mwaliko ponuthe wife of that man
Bwara ka i-te te’ mwaliko pe Franis pon.I believe she married a man from France.
irregular pluraldapenuo
synonymmwalikotemale
contrasts withemelewoman
3possessedhusband
emele da mwalik' iapethe woman and her husband
poss. classifierenone
formal synonymamoso
mwaliko pine mʷaliko pine noun
1great manimportant person, dignitary; leader
mwaliko pine iadapatheir leader, their chief
irregular pluraldapa wopine
synonymtelikichief
Christianity
2the Christian God
mwalikote mʷalikote mwalkote adjective
Lvnale
Tnmanukae
1s.o.male: boy, man
I-ve menu tilu: iote emele, iote mwalikote.She had two babies: one girl, one boy.
Mwaliko iote mwalikote ka i-bu.Someone died, a man.
mul’ one mwalkotemy brother-in-law
Gi’ one, ini tieli et’ one mwalkote.My uncle is my mother's brother. [lit. the sibling of my mother, male]
contrasts withemelewoman
seegeteboy
2animalmale
kulevelu mwalikote[male chicken] rooster
Flora
3plantmale, i.e. sterile variety of a plant
tenubopu mwalikotesterile variety of pawpaw
mwatagese mʷataᵑgese noun
Fish
Coral rabbitfishSiganus corallinus.
mwatagete mʷataᵑgete noun
Lvnlaungale
young unmarried boy
Mwatagete iote ka i-teli mama ini se.She's already been promised to a boy.
AnthropologyTraditionally, male teenagers used to receive education in a Club house called Toplau mwa gete.
irregular pluraldapa gete
mwatebe mʷateᵐbe adjective
womanvirgin
da-tilu viñevi mwatebetwo virgin women
Ini mamote emele mwatebe; ero ka i-vio.She was still a virgin, but her breasts were already sticking out.
seeemelewoman
mwa tedele mʷateⁿdele noun, relational
Lvnma
Tnmwemala
mwa▻② ‘opening’ + tedele ‘faeces’
Anatomy
anus
synonymmabukaia
~mwaulu (i·)mʷaulu verb, intransitive
Lvn~maulu
Tnm~molo
rot, be rotten
mwoe mʷoe noun
house
main entrymoe
mwona mʷona adjective
broad, wide
main entrymona