~i1 (i·)i verb, intransitive
call out with high-pitched voice, typic. in order to reach out to a distant or invisible person in the bush
Ni-le ne ngogoro n-i, ia ni-lengi ngele i-laiaini tae.As I was walking in the forest, I called out, but I heard nobody reply.
see~papecall out with a whistle
i-2 subject prefix
Lvni- / ki-
Tnmi-
1Realis prefix for 3rd singular subject of verbs
I-aiae mijaka.It's a bit difficult.
Emele pon i-mene i-te i-etengi.The woman refused, and sat down crying.
seeini
2Irrealis prefix for 3rd singular subject of verbs
Etapu! Ña leka kape i-rom' eo!Don't! Your cousin might see you!
U-la i-ka kiane!Give it quickly! [lit. you take it comes fast]
ia1 ja interjection
exclamatory particle used when handing s.th. to s.o.: ‘here you are’
Ia! Okor' ono!Here you are! This is your knife.
ia2 ja coordinator
Lvnia
Tnmia
but
Li-romo nga voko, ia pon voko tae.It looks like a stone, but it's not a stone.
Li-romo wako, ia idi li-madau.dancing masksThey were beautiful, but scary.
~ia3 (i·)ja verb, transitive
1rub intensely ‹s.th.› so as to alter its shape; file ‹s.th.›
li-ia aerofile shells (to make shell-money)
Dapa noma li-vo kangele kome li-ia kome.People in the past used to break giant clams and grind them into axes.
see~madesharpen wood
Make fire by rubbing (li-ia iawo).
2light ‹fire, iawo› by rubbing wooden sticks together
Li-ia iawo ñe vilo.We light fire with (pieces of) wood.
see~maliawolight fire
see lexical list atiawo
~ia4 (i·)ja verb, transitive
remove ‹guts of fish+›
U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.You scrape off the scales, and then gut it [lit. remove its guts].
seebeaguts
iaba jaᵐba possessive classifier
Lvniemere
Tnm(ak)egabe
Grammar
our, i.e. of me and him/her: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 1 exclusive dual possessor (see keba)
Ba-pei keba ñe moe iaba.We're quite happy with / fond of our house.
Kupa pi-nabe emele iamela i-ka teve men’ iaba.We are betrothing your daughter to our son.
iabuiepa jaᵐbujepa noun
thunder
Ka iolulu! tebo! ngiro! iabuiepa!There was thunder! rain! wind! thunder again!
synonymiolulu
iada jaⁿda possessive classifier
Lvniedere
Tnm(ak)edea
Grammar
their, i.e. of them two: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 3 dual possessor (see da)
Da-tilu pe Teanu. Kulumoe iada Aneve.They were from Teanu island; their village was Aneve.
iadapa jaⁿdapa possessive classifier
Lvniodore
Tnm(ak)edato
Grammar
1their: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 3 plural possessor (see dapa)
teliki iadapatheir chief(s)
Li-wowo ñe viko iadapa.They swam with their treasures.
I-te tev' ai' iape me et' iape ne moe iadapa.He lives with his parents, in their house.
2+ NP modifier‘of those…’, ‘of the…’
aero iadapa Teanu+locativethe territory of the Teanu tribe
toñaki iadapa Franisithe ship of the Frenchmen
makone iadapa tadoedance of the spirits
Pon teliki iadapa pe li-maluo, ka Teliki Makumoso iadapa po li-bu.+relative clauseThere are chiefs for those who live; but the Supreme Lord for those who are dead.
MorphologyContraction of *ie ① + dapa ⓑ▻②, where dapa is the syntactic head of the NP.
iadiro jaⁿdiro noun
Cf. diro ‘dart’
midrib of a leaf
iadiro peini luromidrib of a coconut palm
iadiro peini otovo noun
otovo ‘sago’
midrib of sagomidrib of a sago leaf, particularly long and thick, put to various uses
Li-ejau iadiro peini otovo me iebe.You can turn (a bunch of) sago midribs into a broom.
iae jae interjection
Lvnese
Tnmjive
Cf. ae ① ‘what’
interjection expressing disdain, similar to shrugging
Tae, ponu ajekele, iae!Leave that, that's the rubbish! Yuck!
iaero jaero
Lvnsawire
Anoun
Cf. ero ① ‘water’
river
iaero Paiuthe river Paiou
Ni-lebie ne iaero.I bathed in the river.
ne pwama iaeroon the river bank
al’ ero ne iaerothe river mouth [lit. foot]
see lexical list atero ①
Bproper noun
Astronomy
the Milky Way
~iaibi (i·)jaiᵐbi verb, transitive
mix together ‹ingredients›
Li-iaibi samame ero.You mix (it) with water.
iaidi jaiⁿdi possessive classifier
Grammar
1people's: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with an impersonal possessor (idi ‘people, one’)
Ka telepakau pe na, lek’ iaidi, idi pe li-romo idi tae. Kape le-wamu idi ñe idi.In our culture, cross-cousins [lit. people's cross-cousins] must not look at each other. They must hide from each other.
Noma li-lanasu idi ne ngatene engaenga: ebele nga namolo iaidi, viabasa idi, kula none aidi, viñe buioe aidi.In the olden days, killing someone could be done using a variety of objects, such as their clothes, their hair, the food they left, the nut they chewed…
seeaidi
2followed by modifierof the people who
Banie, pon Teliki iaidi pe li-maluo, iaidi pe li-bu.Banie was the god of the Living, but also the god of the Dead.
Moe iaidi i-lemoli.This is just a house for ordinary people.
Pe kulumoe ponu, kulumoe iaidi mwaliko tae.That island was not occupied by humans.
iaini jaini interjection
Lvniangani
Cf. ini ‘it/him/her’
that's ityes, absolutely
Kape u-le nanana? – Iaini!Will you go back today? – Yes!
synonymewe
synonymio
iaipa jaipa possessive classifier
Tnm(ak)edato
Grammar
your, i.e. of you all: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 2 plural possessor (see kaipa*)
mwoe iaipayour house
Ni-romo makone iaipa wako po pi-pinoe.I'm really enjoying your dances, that you've been performing.
iakapa jakapa possessive classifier
Lvniegitore
Tnm(ak)egeto
Grammar
our, i.e. of you and us: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 1st inclusive plural possessor (kiapa)
teliki iakapa na pe ka i-re kiapa naour leader who has left us today
Na kuo iakapa tae! Na bwara kuo ie damala.That is not one of our ships. That must be a ship of Westerners.
seeakapa
dapa iakapa noun
those of usour people; somet. our ancestors
Dapa iakapa ne Popokia mamote li-mui eo tae.Our people in Vanikoro have not forgotten you yet.
Dapa iakapa noma li-ovei pe li-pwalau.Our ancestors used to practice navigation.
seedapa nomaancestors
kulumoe iakapa noun
freqour island, i.e. Vanikoro
Laperus i-ka tev’ kiapa ne kulumoe iakapa Vanikoro.Lapérouse came among us, in our island of Vanikoro.
I-si buka iote ñe uña iepiene peini kulumoe iakapa.He wrote a book with several stories from our country.
iakia jakia possessive classifier
Lvniegitore
Tnm(ak)egie
Grammar
our, i.e. of you and me: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 1st inclusive dual possessor (kia)
Menu iakia mamote apilaka.Our child is still small.
E! Kia na ka la-kovi basakulumoe iakia na ta!sailingHey! We sailed past our island!
Menuko iakia ka li-tomoe!Our friends have vanished!
seeakia
iamela jamela possessive classifier
Lvniemiere
Tnmemile
Grammar
your, i.e. of you two: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 2 dual possessor (see kela*)
Kupa pi-nabe emele iamela i-ka teve men’ iaba.We are betrothing your daughter to our son.
Ni-p' ene tamwase ñe men' iamela.[lit. I'm delighted about…] Congratulations on your baby!
iape1 jape possessive classifier
Lvnia
Tnmna, ena, ake nini
Grammar
his, her, its: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 3 singular possessor (see ini)
Awa ene i-viaene imaluo iape.I like her character.
Mwaliko iape i-romo emel' iape i-wene teve iawo.The man saw his wife lying by the fire.
Ngele nga i-le i-toe kuo iape ne ngogoro.Anyone can go cut his canoe in the bush.
Biouro iape nga ne!inanimate[lit. Its length was like this] It was this long!
dapa iape noun
those of him/herhis/her family
Dapa iape li-etengi ñe ini ka li-lu bete.His family mourned him, and began the mat ceremony.
iape2 jape possessive classifier
Tnmena
Grammar
his, her (relative): form of the kin possessive classifier (one*), with a 3rd singular possessor (see ini)
et’ iape pronunc. [eˈʧape]his/her mother
ai' iapehis/her father
Li-le li-wamabu teve ai’ iape me ete iape.They went to ask (permission) from her parents.
see lexical list atone
iawo jawo noun
Lvnnepie
Tnmniava
POc*api
Words of fireiawo
iawo fire
longe firewood
awene stone oven*
kangele iawo flames
vangana glow ‹of fire›
pana heat
~maili ② ; ~maliawo light a fire
~ia ③▻② light ‹fire› by rubbing
~vongo burn, be burnt
~bi ② fan ‹fire›
~su ① set fire, burn ‹s.th.›
~tau cook ‹s.th.›
kaiawo smoke
beniawo ashes
viomoro charcoal in fireplace
uro charcoal; soot
fire
Li-ia iawo ñe vilo.We light fire with (pieces of) wood.
Telau i-avo boso iawo.The food basket is hanging above the fire.
Moe enone i-vongo ne iawo.My house perished in the fire.
see lexical list ataweneoven
idi iⁿdi
Lvnnili
Tnmdeli, deili
Apersonal pronoun
Forms of the generic pronounidi
idi free pronoun
li-▻③ subject pfx, realis
le- ③▻③ subject pfx, irrealis
iaidi possessive, general
aidi ① possessive, food/tool
aidi ② possessive, kin
1‘people’, ‘one’, ‘they’: 3rd plural impersonal pronoun for human referents
Program kula idi li-la moli.subjectSome software programs are free [lit. people give them unconstrained].
Tamate li-romo wako, ia idi li-madau.The dancing masks were beautiful, but scary. [lit. but one feared them]
U-labu idi motoro!objectBe respectful to people!
Tongolukilo ponu wako peini basa idi i-meli.possessor of inalienable nounThis medicinal plant is useful against headaches.
Ka telepakau pe na, lek’ iaidi, idi pe li-romo idi tae. Kape le-wamu idi ñe idi.reciprocal constructionIn our culture, cousins must not look at each other. They must hide from each other.
Synt.The impersonal pronoun idi construes an indefinite or generic human referent, with low or no individuation (cf. Fr. ‘on’). Among other functions, it may serve to background the agent of an event in a way similar to the passive voice of English.
📘 The subject prefix equivalent to idi is li-▻③ (Realis) –le- ③▻③ (Irrealis).
2esplexical meaninghumans, as opp. to spirits or animals
Puro, li-ejau ñe die idi.War arrows are made using human bones.
Dapa Niteni li-ovei pe li-e idi.People from Nendö are cannibals. [they can eat people]
Dapa tadoe li-ejau idi li-madau, tamwase ne bwogo.Ghosts scare people, particularly at night.
Teliki Makumoso, ai’ akapa, i-waivo idi ñe telepakau, ñe piene, i-waivo idi ñe ngatene pe li-ajau…Our Elderly Lord, our father, he's the one who taught us (humans) our culture, our language, everything we do…
synonymmwaliko ⓐ
Bquantifier
Grammar
+ Noun or Modifiergeneric plural marker for human referents
idi bworoBlack people
idi abia ne kulumoeeveryone in the village
idi wopinegreat men, dignitaries
I-ovei pe i-vete piene samame idi mwaliko.They were not exactly gods: they were able to communicate with humans.
synonymuña
idi abia iⁿdi.aᵐbia noun
1literalpeople manymany people
Idi abia li-sube.Many people get it wrong.
Idi abia tae wako.negationIt's better if there aren't too many people.
2people alleverybody
idi abia ne kulumoeeveryone in the village
Na tanoe aidi abia.possessorThis land belongs to everyone.
ie1 je possessive classifier
Lvnie
Tnmake
Grammar
1foll. by NPof (X): form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a noun possessor
toñaki ie LaperusiLapérouse's ship
mwoe ie telupea pigeon's nest
makone ie da-viñevia women's dance
Opola men’ ie Vasango.Opola, the son of Vasango
contrasts withwe ②
2predicatebelong to ‹s.o.›
Moe iaba pwo; iote iu, ie mwaliko iote.Our house is located below; as for the one above, it belongs to someone else.
Enon' tae; ie Esikiel.It's not mine; it's Ezekiel's.
ie2 je possessive classifier
Grammar
foll. by NP(relative) of (X): form of the possessive classifier used for kin terms (one*), with a noun possessor
Et' ie ngele na?Whose mother is this?
see lexical list atone
ie3 je noun
Fish
dolphinDelphinidae spp.
iebe noun
Tnmvidila
The bush fern iebe
Flora
1bush fernPteridophyta spp.
Kape i-vokoi’ iebe. Iebe kula kuledi pon, kape i-vokoi’ i-vio ne webwe ne ma ini.ornamental useHe can cut a fern palm: some ferns are small, and he can stick one in his armband, on his arm.
2a besom, tradit. made with fern leaves; hence a broom
Li-ejau iadiro peini otovo me iebe.You can turn (a bunch of) sago midribs into a broom.
Ini i-pidi men' iape ñe iebe.He flogged his child with a besom.
see~anevesweep
iepiene jepiene noun
Cf. piene ‘speech’
tale, story, legend; esp. customary story from the oral tradition
Bwara le-ko le-watebo iepiene teve uña dapa wopine.We should rather enquire about those traditional stories from the elders.
I-si buka iote ñe uña iepiene peini kulumoe iakapa.He wrote a book with several stories from our country.
N-atevo iepiene amjaka peini Laperus. Iepiene pon na, ni-lengi tev' et' one.I'll tell a short story about Lapérouse. This story, I heard it from my mother.
Li-bei bete pon, li-atevo iepiene pe noma, li-oburo, li-vongo ka li-mokoiu.During funeral ceremonies, we tell old stories, we sing, we eat, and then we go to sleep.
iero jero noun
POc*aRu
wowo ierothe top of the Casuarina tree
iero peini revo noun
Sea
Casuarina of the seabranching tree coral, Gorgonian fansGorgonaceae spp.
Iglan iᵑglan placename
England
ije iᶮɟe noun, relational
Lvnuñe
Tnmvagiñekole
Anatomy
man, animaltooth, teeth
Ije ene i-makoe.I have a broken tooth.
Poi ponu, ije ka i-ke biouro ka i-velei i-vene.This pig has had its teeth grow long, and bend upwards.
ije poi ije pwoi noun
pig tusk
Ije pwoi i-ke i-dadai.The pig tusk has grown out into a full circle.
ije boe ije bwoe noun
shark tooth, tradit. used as a razor
see infobox at~dishave
iliro iliro noun
POc*quRis
Flora
Polynesian apple (Anacardiaceae)Spondias cytherea.
ilo ilo noun
Flora
Sea almond treeTerminalia catappa.
ilo we uvilo noun
Terminalia for ratsvariety of Terminalia not suitable for consumptionTerminalia littoralis.
imaluo imaluo noun
Lvnmilipie
~maluo ‘live’
s.o.behaviour; general attitude, character
Awa ene i-viaene imaluo iape.I like her character.
synonym~maluo ⓑ
imuo imuo numeral
Tnmimoa
thousand
imuo tilutwo thousand
idi imuo iuneone thousand people
Ai-ovei pe u-samame ene ñe imuo tili we tae?Could you help me with five thousand (dollars)?
seereahundred
see lexical list attivi
ini ini personal pronoun
Lvnngani
Tnmnini
Grammar
he/she, him/her, it: 3 singular personal pronoun
1topiche/she/it: stressed pronoun, co-occurring with subject prefix i-
Ini i-lebie men’ iape.She's bathing her child.
In’ ne me in’ re, da menuko.This man here, and that one there, they are friends.
2he/she/it: subject of non-verbal predicates
Momoso iono, ini bworobworo, we koro?Your wife, is she black or white?
Jeboro ini tongolukilo iote.Wild basil (it) is a medicinal plant.
3him/her/it: object of verb or preposition
Ai’ one i-ovei piene Tetevo ka ni-ko u-vagasi ini pon ta.My father knows the language of Utupua, I suggest you contact him.
Phraseol.A 3rd singular anaphoric object is sometimes expressed by ini, but most often is left implicit (zero anaphora). This is especially true for inanimate referents: ‘I saw it’ would be Ka ni-romo. (rather than ?Ka ni-romo ini.)
4after directly possessed nounhis/her/its: possessive after directly possessed noun (e.g. body parts)
enga inihis/her name
Awa ini i-viane.[his neck/mind hits it] He wants it.
Die ini i-meli.[Her back hurts.] She's having labour contractions.
seeiape
5predicate(it is) him/her/it
Ini ta!with focus taThat's it!
io jo interjection
Tnmio
1in replyyes!
“A-ko ae? A-ko u-ka u-la iawo?” Ini i-ko “Io! Ne-la iawo mijaka me ne-le ne-tau namuko 'naka.”“Do you want some fire?” – “Yes!” she replied. “I just need a bit of fire so I can cook my fish.”
synonymewe
synonymiaini
2alright, well
Io. Iepiene po ne-ko ni-atevo na…Alright, so… The story I want to tell today…
Io ponu mijaka ponu me u-ovei…in writingAlright, that was just a short message to let you know…
~ioi (i·)joi verb, transitive
push
main entry~iui
iolulu jolulu noun
thunder
Ka iolulu! tebo! ngiro! iabuiepa!There was thunder! rain! wind! thunder again!
synonymiabuiepa
seemegilolightning
iono jono possessive classifier
Lvniemie
Tnmei, eni
Grammar
your: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 2 singular possessor (see eo)
eo ka uña damiliko ionoyou and your children
Piene iono vengela tamwase.Your explanations are extremely clear.
Ebieve iono tivi? – Uluko tamana teva.[lit. How many are your years?] How old are you? – Fourteen.
iote jote
Lvnleka
Tnmkeo
Aadjective
1other, different
Et’ adapa pon “Takulalevioe”. Enga ini iote li-ko “Takole”.Their mother was called Takulalefioe. She also had another name, Takole.
Tae, ini tae. Iote teve.predicateNo, it's not her. It's someone else. [lit. another one from her]
2in time expressionsnot the current one: hence previous or next
ebieve iote k' awoiu ponu[the other year that finished] last year
Kape ne-tabo ne-le metele iote pe kape i-ka na.I'll go again next month [lit. the other month that will come].
Li-tau sekele ponu awoiu, moro iote li-le li-teli avtebe.Once they had burnt their gardens, the next day they planted some taros.
Bquantifier
Grammar
1a, one: determiner for indefinite singular
I-si buka iote ñe uña iepiene peini kulumoe iakapa.He wrote a book with several stories from our country.
Pi-ko me p-ajau toñaki iote.We want to build a boat.
📘 The plural of iote is kula ①.
seeiuneone (numeral)
2in predicate NPbe an (X)
Eo unuo iote!You're a thief!
Tabuluburi, tonge iote pine pe li-loko puro i-koie ene.A quiver is a long sheath where you can insert your arrows.
3existential usethere is an (X)
Vilo iote pine i-sabu ne anoko.existential[There's] a large tree felled on the road.
Mwaliko iote da emel’ iape.[once upon a time there was] a man and his wife
Cnoun
head of NP, somet. foll. by modifiersthe one
Moe iaba pwo; iote iu, ie mwaliko iote.Our house is located below; as for the one above, it belongs to someone else.
Iote pe eo a-vete ponu, i-wene ne moe 'none.+ relative clauseThe one you were mentioning is in my home.
iote… iote construction
one… the other
I-romo voko tilu. Iote wabulubu, iote teporo.He saw two stones: one round, one flat.
I-ve menu tilu: iote emele, iote mwalikote.She had two babies: one girl, one boy.
Ni-toe jokoro iote me susuko me ngasune semame jokoro iote.I cut a bamboo rod to the same length as the other one.
Li-bi vongoro we teliki iote, teliki iote, i-katau dapa awoiu.They collected almonds for each chief, one after the other, enough for them all.
ioti joti noun
Lvnioti
dark cloud carrying rain
seeadawocloud
ise ise noun, relational
Lvnuse
Tnmbivala
3sise ini
Anatomy
vulgpenis
Ise eo enaka!from a woman to a manI want your sex!
Ise ene i-to!I have a boner!
iu1 ju adverb
Lvnngau
Tnmiu
up, above
ne otovo iuup in the thatched roof
Moe iaba pwo; iote iu, ie mwaliko iote.storey houseOur flat is located below; as for the one above, it belongs to someone else.
basa re po i-wen' iu rethat mountain up over there
Ai-ava iu ñe vakaboro?Did you fly (in the sky) in a plane?
Li-romo i-katau vangana kanmoro iu ne meteliko.We watch the light of the stars up in the sky.
derivativetev’ iuabove; southeast
~iu2 (i·)ju verb, transitive
Tnm~po
1bury ‹s.th., s.o.› in the ground
Viko iadapa li-iu.They buried their shellmoney in the ground.
Li-iu tepapa i-le awoiu, li-vesu bulateno i-vio.First they buried the dancing boards, then they erected the ritual pole.
Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
2figcause ‹s.th.› to be buried
Miko noma ka i-iu kulumoe Tetawo ne Banie.A long time ago, the village of Tetawo on Banie island was buried by an earthquake.
~iu3 (i·)ju verb, transitive
thread ‹several things› using a string or thread
Dapa Iura li-la vesevelae li-iu me viko.People in Vanuatu thread cone shells into shellmoney.
~iui (i·)jui ~ioi verb, transitive
Lvn~tui
Tnm~so
1push forward ‹s.th. heavy›
U-iui i-le!Push it forward!
Katae kape le-iui kuo i-abu ne revo.They were about to push their canoe out to sea.
Dapa li-ioi tovokowo ene: kuo pine ponu i-atili i-abu i-le.As they pushed the lever, the large ship slid down all the way.
contrasts with~elelepull, drag
2throw, cast, cast away
Kape le-loko ajekele le-iui ne revo.They're going to gather rubbish and throw it into the sea.
Uie lumobo po i-vi ponu, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei, i-amei i-ioi i-le ponu.Once he had tied the leaves (around the stone), he began to swing it, swing, swing, swing, till he threw it far away.
synonym~laiui
~iui teuko verb, transitive
Lvn~tui namatau
cast hookfish by angling
Mou me ne-iumu ne-le n-ioi teuko ko.Let me first go angling.
see~mede▻③lure, bait
3espcast ‹arrow›, shoot
Pe li-wete telupe, u-avi visone ka u-iui diro i-le i-wete ini.When you hunt pigeons, you bend your bow, and let the arrow fly and hit it.
synonym~ago
iuko juko noun
Flora
Red silkwood (Sapotaceae)Burckella obovata.
iula jula
Anoun
strap
seetenurorope, string
Bnoun, relational
Techniques
1rope of ‹s.th.›: creates compounds referring to types of rope
iula teuko noun
fishing line, string used for angling
see lexical list at~omato fish
2chain of ‹ship›, to which the anchor (tetaula) is attached; hence anchor
iula tepukeanchor of a sailing canoe
iula toñakianchor of a ship
Iula toñaki ponu, ene ni-romo ñe mata ene.That (ship) anchor, I have seen it with my own eyes.
~iumu (i·)jumu auxiliary
Lvn~ono
Tnm~amo, ~amu
1be first to (do V), before other people
U-iumu u-koie u-ka!You come in first!
U-iumu me ne-katau eo.You go first, I'll come behind you.
2do V first, before other actions; start by doing V
Mou me ne-iumu ne-vongo ko.Let me have dinner first.
Ia ni-mui, nga u-ium’ u-viñ' ene!I didn't know, you should have first told me!
seemou
iune june
Lvntilioko
Tnmomwano
Anumeral
1when counting or measuringone
Ni-nabe jokoro lea iune ka kula.I measured the bamboo to be one fathom and a half.
uie kwate tamana iunepage thirty one
rea iune tamana iuneone hundred and one
see lexical list attivi
2one whole, one full (N)
wik iune pioteone full week
Ka metele iune pon!Alright, it's been one moon!
La-te ra ra, bwara kata kape ebieve iune.They stayed there, perhaps a whole year.
3rareindefinite valuea, an
Emele iune, ini da men’ iape, la-te ne kulumoe.[There was once] one woman, with her child, who were living in the village.
Phraseol.A new singular referent is normally introduced using the ordinary indefinite determiner iote ⓑ ‘a, an’.
synonymiote ⓑa, an
4with negation(not) even one
Li-bu awoiu. Iune i-te tae.Everybody died: nobody survived. [lit. a single one wasn't there]
5a single; one and the same
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.It is the same word, but with two distinct meanings.
seengasunesame, identical
iune na phrase
only one
Ia enon' iot' tae! Pe enone na iune na.But I don't have another (knife). This is my only one.
Mwaliko iune na ka i-te.There's only one man left (who can speak the language).
iune iune construction
repetition of iune
one oneone after the other; each and every one
Kape li-au, li-ngago iunubo iune iune ñe veve.They will wrap [the food], and fasten every parcel using rope.
Bpostverb
together
Dapa Lovoko na li-ovei pe li-la ngatene iune.The Lovoko people are used to cooperating with each other [lit. working as-one]
~le iune (be, do) the same; (go) together
iune-tae junetae iuntae numeral
iune + tae
lacking onenine
kwa-tilu tamana iuntaetwenty nine
Morphology“Nine” can be expressed as a single word (tidi) or as a subtractive numeral iune-tae, lit. ‘[ten] minus one’.
synonymtidi
see lexical list attivi
iunido1 juniⁿdo noun
analogy with iunido ②
Flora
nettle tree, a toxic plant (Urticaceae)Dendrocnide spp.
iunido2 juniⁿdo noun
analogy with iunido ①
Fish
Spotted porcupine fish, with sharp spinesDiodon hystrix.
seealukopufferfish
iunubo junuᵐbo noun
Lvnnunumie
Tnmnuba
1portion ‹of food›
iunubo vongorobasketful of almonds
Kape li-katei vekai iunubo apilaka.They cut the pudding into small portions.
Mata da i-koie ponu, la-romo iunubo vekai, iunubo poi, i-wene ne lema Toplau.They looked inside, and saw portions of pudding and portions of pork, set out inside the Men's house.
2espparcel ‹of grated food›, packed inside a leaf, and baked (~vai) in the oven
uña iunubo tomonaportions of pudding
Kape li-au, li-ngago iunubo iune iune ñe veve.They will wrap [the food], and fasten every parcel using rope.
iupa jupa possessive classifier
Lvniemitore
Tnm(ak)egamuto
Grammar
our, i.e. of me and them: form of the general possessive classifier (enone*), with a 1 exclusive plural possessor (see kupa)
Makone peini basakulumoe iupa na.It’s a dance from our country.
Basa iupa re po i-wen’ iu re, enga ini Popokia.That mountain of ours up over there is called Popokia.
Apono i-somoli otovo peini mwoe iupa.The hurricane damaged the roof of our house.
dapa iupa nomaour ancestors
iura jura
Lvnleve ngau
Tnmiu-da
Alocative
iu ‘above’
1above, upper area
Li-le ne iura.They went to the heights [of the island].
antonymtawora
2geocentric coordinatesup on the cardinal axis: towards southeast, south or east
Ngiro Palapu i-ka ka li-aiu li-ke li-pwalau i-le iura.As soon as the northern wind began to blow, they left [Vanikoro] and set off to sail southwards.
Vana uña toñaki i-ka i-loko dapa ne kulumoe na, dapa li-lui li-langatene ne Iura, Santo.Ships used to come to this island to collect people, and then take them away to make them work somewhere in the south, on (Espiritu) Santo.
antonymtaworanorthwest
BplacenameIura
Geo
hencethe Vanuatu archipelago, located south of Vanikoro; partic. the Torres and Banks Islands, in northern Vanuatu
Kulumoe Iura, kulumoe i-wene tev’ iu.The islands of (north) Vanuatu are located southeast.
Li-ovei pe li-pwalau li-le Iura ne tepuke.They used to travel to (north) Vanuatu on their canoes.
iuro juro noun
Architecture
1housepillar, main vertical post supporting the roof structure of a house
Li-nabe na ini wako, li-vesu iuro.building a houseThey first measured the ground, and then erected the pillars.
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
Naut
2sailing shipmast
Li-katei bavede i-vene ne iuro, peini me le-vesu i-ke i-le.They hoisted the sail up the mast, so they could sail away.
seebavedesail
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
iutego juteᵑgo noun
Architecture
forked pillar standing in each corner of the house, holding the framing of the roof
📘 This pillar holds more weight than the secondary digo ‘vertical post’.
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
iutego peini tokoli noun
Architecture
pillars for floorstilts, supporting the floor structure (tokoli) in a stilt house
iutego kuledi peini tokolishorter stilts for the floor structure
ive ive predicative
Lvniwo
Tnmija
interrogative verb enquiring about a whole situation
MorphologyThe form ive is formally an instance of an interrogative verb ~ve ①, which always surfaces at the 3sg i-ve, whether Realis or Irrealis.
1main predicatewhat happens? what's up? how's things?
Eo pon, ive?[lit. as for you, how's things?] What's up with you?
Ive? Ba-romo kupa wako we tamwaliko?Now what? Do you like us or not?
Aia kape i-ka ne! – Ka ive?Your father's coming! – So what?!
2in hesitationwhat? Used when the speaker looks for his words to describe a whole event
A-ko ive?What did you say?
Li-ka ponu, li-ko (ive?) li-wokobe da.So they all came in order to… (to do what again?) …to welcome them.
3foll. another verb(be) why?
A-kai lusa ene na (pe) ive?But why did you tear my shirt?
pe ive? interrogative
clause-finalbecause it's why?why?
Eo a-mokoiu ai-ovili pe ive?Why are you sleeping so late?
synonympe i-kae?
4transitive usewhat's up with ‹s.o., s.th.›?
Ive eo? Ai-etengi ñe nganae?What's up with you? Why are you crying?