ba1 ᵐba interjection
following a question worddiscourse particle, expressing the speaker's surprise or disbelief
Na ngaten' ae ba?Hey what (the hell) is this?!
ba2 ᵐba noun
1plantstem, stalk
ba viloflower stem
ba otestem of sago palm
Ka ba wopine ponu!Look at those huge (taro) stalks!
2crablarge claw
seekukubo
ba-3 ᵐba· subject prefix
Lvnba- / nuba-
Tnmba- / be-, bi-
dual subject prefix for “Dislocutive”: 1st exclusive and 2nd person
11st exclusive Dual prefix, whether realis or irrealis: the two of us
Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
Totokale na, keba ba-kila keba.reflexive constructionIn that photo, we are getting married. [lit. we are marrying ourselves/each other]
seekeba1exc:Dual pronoun
22nd person Dual prefix, whether realis or irrealis: you two
Bara ba-te ba-botongo okoro ponu.realis interpretationI'm afraid you may be sitting on my knife.
“Minga kape ba-le?” I-ko “Mobo.”irrealis interpretation“When will you leave?” – “Tomorrow.”
Ba-te puna kela tae!irrealis (imperative) interpretationYou (two), keep quiet!
seekela2:Dual pronoun
bai- ᵐbaj- subject prefix
dual subject prefix for “Dislocutive”: 1st exclusive and 2nd person. Variant of ba- ③ before a vowel, or for certain monosyllabic verb stems
Abu bai-aiu ba-vio me ne-rom!2Dual interpretationCould you please stand up and let me have a look there?
Bai-te ra ra ra, ba-lengi temaka pe i-ekili.1exc:Dual interpretationWe were at home, when we suddenly felt the place tremble.
balawe ᵐbalawe noun
Lvnbainavu
Tnmbainapu
Flora
pineappleAnanas sativus.
Ni-ta ñe balawe.I cut up a pineapple.
bale ᵐbale noun
Lvnmiwe
Tnmbaloe
POc*ᵐbaReko
Flora
breadfruit (Moraceae)Artocarpus altilis.
mata balesprout of breadfruit tree
vese balebreadfruit seeds
uie balebreadfruit leaves
U-bi bale u-toe u-ajau tepwoe.You pick some breadfruit, cut it, and make dried-breadfruit with it.
lavatunu peini balebreadfruit pudding
bali ᵐbali noun
Architecture
1genbamboo pole
bali peini telemoe noun
pole for wallsplinth: bamboo pole lying at the base of a house walling, to maintain it
Architecture
2espsection of horizontal purlins overhanging the roof; eaves
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
bamele ᵐbamele noun
Flora
philodendron, k. o. large-leaved vine that grows up and wraps around treesEpipremnum spp.
bamele kiñekiñe noun
Flora
pinnate philodendronk.o. philodendron with pinnate leavesEpipremnum pinnatum.
Banie ᵐbanie
Aproper noun
Mythology
Banie: name of the main god of Vanikoro, in the island’s ancient religion
Teliki Makumoso Banie i-waivo idi mwaliko ñe telepakau, ñe maluo.Our Great Lord Banie instructed people with the Law, with our way of life.
Banie, pon Teliki iaidi pe li-maluo, iaidi pe li-bu.Banie was the god of the Living, but also the god of the Dead.
Bplacename
Geo
1Mt Banie: name of the main volcano of Vanikoro, located on Banie island
Geo
2Banie: name of the main island of the Vanikoro group – opp. Teanu, the second island in size
A-samame dapa iakia ne kulumoe iakapa Banie ka Teanu.You’ve been helpful to our people, in our islands of Banie and Teanu. (i.e. in Vanikoro).
Geo
3sometthe island group of Vanikoro as a whole
Ni-ko me n-ajau kopi abia me le-waga i-dai kulumoe iakapa Banie.I want to print many copies, so I can distribute them across our whole Vanikoro territory.
📘 This usage reflects an attempt at identifying a native equivalent for the geographical term Vanikoro, whose likely Polynesian origin is seen as inconvenient. This usage is criticised by some speakers, for whom ⓑanie should be restricted to a single island (ⓑanie ⓑ▻②).
bara ᵐbara adverb
maybe
main entrybwara
baro ᵐbaro noun
Flora
petiole of the coconut palm
bwoe baro [coconut-petiole shark] hammerhead shark
oie baro noun
the coconut palm as a whole
synonymbaulukococonut palm
basa1 ᵐbasa noun, relational
Lvnbasa
Tnmbase
POc*ᵐbatu
Anatomy
1animal, humhead
Basa ene i-meli.My head aches.
Taluaito ini basa beme, kape i-padi basa ini.The (heathen) priest had a bald head, which he would paint.
synonymwabasa
derivativeviabasa[hair of head] hair
2humhead, mind, as the seat of intelligence
Basa eo i-epele.[your head is smart] You're smart.
Basa eo mumule![your head is stupid] You're a fool!
Basa tae![No head!] You mindless!
Dapa damala, basa dapa wako.White people are clever. [their head is good]
3metons.o.height, vertical size
iote basa kuledithe shorter one [lit. the one with short size]
4planthead, root
basa kavaa head of kava
5shipone of the two ends of ‹a ship›; esp. front part, prow
I-ium’ i-le, i-tau uro i-wene ne basa kuo iape teve tilu pon.magic on a canoeFirst, he will burn some charcoal and rub it onto the two ends of the canoe.
synonymteviumu
antonymteviristern
6prominent part of ‹s.th.›
basa2 ᵐbasa noun
mountain
Basa iupa re po i-wen’ iu re, enga ini Popokia.That mountain of ours up over there is called Popokia.
seegilitahill
basa3 ᵐbasa noun
lineage, family line; clan; moiety
Tili' one emele pe tieli et' one i-ve, kape ne-kila ini metae, pe keba basa iune.My female cousin, born of my mother's sister, I am not allowed to marry her, because we belong to the same moiety.
Telepakau akapa mwaliko i-bu damiliko iape ka basa peini ini, kape le-teli ini.In our tradition, when someone dies, he must be buried by his children and by his clan.
~sava basa verb-object idiom
buy clanpay the ritual fee to enter a clan, through presents (savene, etc.) and food
Mobo kape le-lui me le-sava basa.Tomorrow, there will be a ceremony of clan purchase.
basa pine noun
large clantribe
basa4 ᵐbasa adjective
Lvnbasa
Tnmbasa
blade+blunt, dull
antonymmetene
basadigo ᵐbasaⁿdiᵑgo noun
basa ‘head’ + digo ‘pillar’
Architecture
head of timbertie-beam: horizontal beam resting on posts (iutego, digo), and supporting the roof structure
📘 A house has two such beams, one on each side of the roof.
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
basakulumoe ᵐbasakulumoe noun
Lvnbasa kulamoe
Tnmbasue (kulama)
basa ① ‘head’ or basa ② ‘mountain’ + kulumoe ‘village, country’
Geo
1mountain (?) of inhabited-landisland
basakulumoe iote aplakaa little island
Li-ko noma, uña toñaki van li-ka, li-ka li-dai temaka i-katau uña basakulumoe.In the olden days, large ships would sail around the archipelago, going from island to island.
contrasts withtemotu
2by extland, country
Makone peini basakulumoe iupa na.It’s a dance from our country.
synonymkulumoe
basavono ᵐbasavono noun
Lvnbasa venelue
Tnmbasue
with or without preposition nemoment, time
basavono kulasometimes
Basavono pon, basavono peini pe li-pei idi.That moment is a time of rejoicing.
Ne basavono ponu, kulumoe Tetawo idi mamote li-te ene.At that time, the village of Tetawo was still inhabited.
derivativebasavono wakopeaceful time
basavono na adverb
this momentnow; nowadays
Pon, i-wene ra basavono na.It has remained there until today.
Na basavono na dapa va li-ka li-odo na.treasurePeople are still looking for it today.
Basavono na toñaki ka moko.Today, the ship has turned into coral reef.
basavono pe basavono po subordinator
(at) the moment thatwhen, as
basavono pe li-anu kavawhen we drink kava
Basavono pe mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.Whenever someone dies, their body is buried in a grave.
Basavono po kape awoiu, dapa li-ovei.And when that was finished, people began to understand.
basavono wako ᵐbasavono wako noun
good timespeace
Meviro awoiu, ka li-te ne basavono wako.When the wars ended, they finally lived in peace. [lit. in good times]
baudo ᵐbauⁿdo noun
(?) ba ‘stalk’ + udo ‘banana’
Flora
k.o. leafy tree, unidentified
Kape li-au ñe uie baudo.We will wrap (the food) with 'baudo' leaves.
bauluko ᵐbauluko noun
A coconut palm (bauluko)
Flora
coconut palm
Li-vo aero i-dai, li-ngago bauluko i-dai, me kape le-mako ne to.They set up a fence all around [the area], and tied coconut palms around it, for people to dance inside.
seelurococonut
see lexical list atuie luro
bauro ᵐbauro noun
Birds
Common NoddyAnous stolidus.
bava aele ᵐbava aele noun
aele ‘leg’
Anatomy
foot
bavede1 ᵐbaveⁿde noun
Tnmamnala
Sailing (~vesu bavede)
shipsail
~vesu bavede hoist the sail; hence sail
Li-bu bavedefurl the sail
Li-re bavederelease the sail
Dapa noma, li-ovei pe li-loko uie woubo pe le-vei bavede peini.People before used to weave sails out of pandanus leaves.
see lexical list atkuocanoe, boat
bavede2 ᵐbaveⁿde noun
Tnmamnala
Cf. bavede ① ‘sail’ (analogy of shape)
Fish
butterflyfish, bannerfishChaetodontidae spp.
bavolo ᵐbavolo noun
Fish
Blacktail SnapperLutjanus fulvus.
bavolo we Tangalo noun
Fish
Tangalo's bavoloHumpback red snapperLutjanus gibbus.
be ᵐbe particle
1once again
Tabo li-ka be ponu.They came back there.
2in addition, besides
Metae kape ne-vete, susuko metae ka ni-tabo ni-mui be!I can't tell you, it wouldn't be accurate, and besides I've forgotten it all!
iote be adjective
another one; the next one
Mwoe iote be me kape le-le ene tae?Isn't there another house where we could go?
Iote be kape li-oburo, piene adapa Tetevo.The next one they'll sing is in the Utupua language.
seeengaiotedifferent
bea ᵐbea noun, relational
Lvnlale
Tnmlebwe
Anatomy
1man, animalguts, bowels, intestine
bea namukofish bowels
U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.You scrape off the scales, and then gut it [lit. remove its guts].
seesabelly
seetedelefaeces
2spidersilk secreted by ‹spider›; hence spider web, cobweb
bea avea cobweb
synonymmoe ie avespider house
bebenuro ᵐbeᵐbenuro noun
Fish
Napoleon Wrasse, Humphead WrasseCheilinus undulatus.
~bei (i·)ᵐbei verb, transitive
Lvn~beli
Tnm~bei
1cover ‹s.th., s.o.›, esp. with (ñe) s.th. heavy
Li-bei ñe uie vilo kula.We cover (the food) with a few leaves.
Li-loko viñe basa dapa li-bei ñe voko, li-ko nga uo.They collected their skulls, and buried them under stones, like a cairn.
2walk on ‹s.th.›, squash ‹s.th.› with o.'s foot
3gensquash, crush, destroy ‹s.th.›
U-bei i-metelu i-wene ne mataiko ponu!invocation to a godSquash (this ship) and let it sink in this very gulf!
synonym~somoli
4figtrample on ‹law, ethics, taboo›, infringe
Ka i-bei nuduro.[trample on a taboo] He has infringed the law.
~bei bete (i·)ᵐbei ᵐbete verb-object idiom
Lvn~beli bele
Tnm~bei be
1periphrsquash matslie down, sleep
Nanana kape le-bei bete vele?Where shall we sleep [lit. squash mats] tonight?
Kaipa pe-te, ene mou ne-bei bete ko.You guys stay here, I'll just go for a nap.
Anthropology
2euph‘hold a vigil’: a funeral ceremony taking place in the house of a recently dead person
Squashing mats for the deadLi-bei bete
Nga mwaliko i-bu, dapa le-le le-iu ebele ini. N’ adie, dapa abia ne kulumoe kape le-bei bete bogo tili ne moe iape. Li-bei bete pon, li-atevo iepiene pe noma, li-oburo, li-vongo ka li-mokoiu; li-anu ero pana ka li-kanu, ka li-moloe ne kat… Awoiu, kape le-lu bete.
When a person dies, we first bury their body. Then people in the community will hold a vigil (‘squash mats’) for five days in that person's home. During these vigils, we tell each other stories, we sing songs, eat together, sleep; we drink tea, chew betel nut, play cards together… When the ceremony is over, it's time to fold the mats away (~lu bete*).
~beiu (i·)ᵐbeju verb, intransitive
Cf. beiuko ‘solid’
liquid+harden, solidify
Abwa dero i-ke mina oie basavono po li-toe, i-ka i-beiu ka li-kila li-ko “tepulu peini dero”.The sap of the kauri tree runs out of the trunk when you cut it; then it solidifies, and we call it tepulu, “kauri gum”.
beiuko ᵐbejuko
Lvnbeluka
Tnmbwauka
Aadjective
Cf. ~beiu ‘solidify’
1solid, sturdy
antonympwelelesoft
2figwhen countingsolid, whole
ebieve tilu beiukotwo whole years, two solid years
Bpostverb
firmly, strongly
U-vio beiuko na u-tabau!Stand firmly, don't fall down!
bele ᵐbele noun, relational
Lvnmele
Tnmwele
1man, animalskin
bele voro skin of stingray; grater
2vegetable+skin
bele udobanana skin
Li-la uo li-ta bele mina.They're peeling off the skin of yams.
seeviñeshell
3treebark
Li-kai bele dero.tear off the bark of the kaori tree
4bookcover
Bele ini koro.It has a white cover.
belebale ᵐbeleᵐbale noun
Tnmnara
Flora
common fernCyclosorus spp.
Etym.Literally ‘skin of breadfruit’, probably due to the honeycomb aspect of fern leaves.
seeiebe▻①fern
seebokoetree fern
belemele ᵐbelemele noun
Food
‘almond shelf’: a lattice shelf made of woven bamboo, hanging high over the fireplace in the kitchen, used for storing canarium almonds (vongoro) while they dry
Li-bi vongoro li-kamai, li-loko i-vene ne belemele li-sabisi li-maliawo boso. Pon ra kokoro.They picked almonds and brought them home, poured them all up on the almond shelf; then they lit a fire underneath, to dry them up.
Mwalik' iape i-ven' i-la vongoro ne belemele i-abu i-vo.Her husband climbed to take some almonds down from the shelf, and began crushing them.
bele mwa ᵐbele mʷa noun, relational
Anatomy
skin of mouthlips
Bele mwa eo enaka!I want your lips!
bele vilo ᵐbele filo noun
1gentree skintree bark
2tapa, flexible material made on tree bark, used for traditional ornaments and clothes
Ni-la bele vilo, ni-ngago ñe waluko ene.I take a piece of bark, and tie it around my hips.
bele voro ᵐbele foro noun
skin of stingraytraditional sander, made of the rough skin of a stingray (voro ②)
voro bele voro [sander stingray] k.o. stingray, whose skin is particularly suitable for sanding
The stingray sanderbele voro
Li-la voro pe bele ini jiejie, li-kai bele utedie ini, awoiu li-la li-teli ne aeve me kokoro. Awoiu li-dai ñe vilo li-asai botongo. Awoiu ka i-wene peini u-totoñe via kome, via wele, tekumete, nga pon.
‘If you catch one of those stingrays whose skin is rough and rugged, you tear the skin off its back, and put it to dry in the sun. Then, you wrap it around a stick, and tie it with a stitch. It can be used for sanding axe handles, paddles, wooden dishes, and so on.’
bemata ᵐbemata noun
Certain tamate headdresses show the Spirits’ antennae
(?) + mata ‘eyes’
long antennae found on certain ritual headdresses (tamate), representing the Spirit's eyes
Noma, mata pon, bemata pon! Tilu.mythical timesIn the olden days, their eyes were actually on two antennae.
beme ᵐbeme adjective
Lvnbeme
Tnmbeme
bald
Dapa li-kila li-ko “Beme” pe ini beme.They call him “Baldhead” because he's bald.
Taluaito ini basa beme, kape i-padi basa ini.The (heathen) priest had a bald head, which he would paint.
beniawo ᵐbeniawo noun
Cf. iawo ‘fire’
ashes
Ni-bo beniawo ni-le ni-laioi.I collected the ashes and threw them away.
seeviomorocharcoal
see lexical list atiawo
benoe ᵐbenoe noun
Naut
navigable passage: strait, channel
synonymmataiko
benuro ᵐbenuro noun
Flora
k.o. creeping vineMikania micrantha.
Besungale ᵐbesuŋale proper noun
Mythology
Besungale, a mythological creature described as an evil woman with long breasts
Besungale the female demonBesungale
Besungale ini emele ero me ini biouro, i-ago ñe eo kape u-bu. I-te ne ka togobe, ne utele boke, ne bonge.
Besungale is a woman with long breasts, with which she can strike you to death. She lives in the mangrove, or inside banyans, or in caves.
bete ᵐbete
Lvnbele
Tnmbe
Anoun
mat
bete peini uie kiemat made of pandanus leaves
li-vei beteweave a mat
li-bu betefold a mat
li-lu beteroll a mat (to put it away)
derivative~lu betehold a funeral ceremony
Bnoun, relational
1sbete ene2sbete eo
s.o.bed mat, bed
Okoro 'naka i-wene ne pwa bete ene.My knife is under my bed.
~betei (i·)ᵐbetei verb, intransitive
clam madeleclose, shut itself
Madele i-betei.The giant clam has shut itself.
beve ᵐbeve adjective
Lvnmala
Tnmpetonga
white, bright (opp. bworo ‘dark’)
adawo bevewhite cloud
synonymkorowhite
beveko ᵐbeveko noun
Fish
Lined BristletoothCtenochaetus striatus.
~bi1 (i·)ᵐbi verb, transitive
Lvn~bi
Tnm~bele
Harvesting foodLi-labu none
~bi ① pick ‹fruit, nuts+› w. hand
~toe ② ⓐ▻② harvest ‹bananas› by chopping
~ae ②▻④ harvest ‹yam, Alocasia taro› by digging
~au ①▻② harvest ‹cassava, Colocasia taro› by plucking
~wete▻⑤ harvest ‹swamp taro› using stick
pick ‹fruit› from its tree, using hand
Li-bi balepick breadfruit
Li-bi balawepick a pineapple
Li-bi vongorocollect Canarium almonds
U-le u-bi avie, me u-kamai, me le-sai ñe kava.Go pick some Malay apples, and bring them so we can eat out the taste of kava.
see~avipick up
~bi2 (i·)ᵐbi verb, oblique transitive
fan (s.o., s.th., ñe)
U-la teili u-bi ñ' eo.Just take a fan and fan yourself.
I-bi ñe iawo.She fanned the fire.
seeteilia fan
Bilbeure ᵐbilᵐbeure proper noun
Mythology
Bilbeure, a snake-like deity
📘 This ancient god is associated with the Lovono area.
bile ᵐbile noun
Fish
Bumphead parrotfishBolbometopon muricatum.
bilibiro ᵐbiliᵐbiro bilbiro noun
POc*ᵐbiRiᵐbiRi
Flora
Sea hearse tree (Hernandiaceae)Hernandia nymphaefolia.
biliko ᵐbiliko noun
Sea
cowrieCypraea spp.
bimole ᵐbimole noun
Fish
Red bass snapperLutjanus bohar.
bingone ᵐbiŋone noun
Tnmbilgora
Anatomy
mucus
Bingone i-ke ne visingele dapa.They have runny noses.
seevisingelenose
biouro ᵐbiouro
Lvnbeure
Tnmvabeura
(?) POc*barapu
Aadjective
1s.th.long
Biouro tadoe!It's terribly long!
kasule wa-biourocompoundlong-fruit bean
Poi ponu, ije ka i-ke biouro ka i-velei i-vene.This pig has had its teeth grow long, and bend upwards.
antonymkuledi
2s.o.tall
Ini bwara biouro i-da eo.She’s probably taller than you.
3speech, storylengthy, verbose
Iepiene ponu biouro mijaka.That story is quite long.
seelabioulast long
Bnoun
length, size
Biouro iape nga ne![lit. Its length was like this] It was this long!
Cpostverb
with verb ~le ‘go’at length, in detail
Kape ni-atevo i-le biouro metae.I won’t be able to speak at great length.
Ka ni-lengi i-le biouro tae.I didn’t hear (that story) in detail.
bisa ᵐbisa noun, relational
Tnmvasbele
Anatomy
shoulder
I-tabe apali ne bisa, ñe namolo.She's carrying her child on her shoulder, using a cloth.
~bisi (i·)ᵐbisi verb, intransitive
Lvn~sipwedetu
be surprised (by s.th., ñe), be astonished
Ni-bisi tamwalikose ñei!I'm very surprised by this.
Nana ene ka ni-bisi pe li-romo i-le nga idi abia Tukupie ponu na li-ka Vanikoro ponu.And today I am astonished at how many Tikopian people are coming to Vanikoro.
synonym~eketele
blateno ᵐblateno bulateno noun
Flora
1k.o. tree, can grow very tallSterculia banksiana.
Anthropology
2ritual pole. During ngapiene celebrations, dancers stomp on wooden boards (~wate tepapa) which are laid out in a circle around a high wooden pole (blateno). From that pole hang large amounts of fruit. At the end of the celebration season, the pole is brought down and the fruit are distributed to the participants.
Blateno, oie vilo pe li-padi me kape le-woi ne to mane, me tepapa i-dai.The “blateno” is a wooden pole that is painted and erected in the middle of the village area, where it is surrounded by stomping boards.
Li-iu tepapa i-le awoiu, li-vesu bulateno i-vio.First they buried the dancing boards, then they erected the ritual pole.
I-vio ka li-wabeiu ñe moboro teva, me blateno i-vio, susuko, ne to.They used four rattan canes as props, so that the pole could stand firmly in the middle.
~bo1 (i·)ᵐbo verb, transitive
Tnm~ba
collect, gather, heap up ‹s.th.›
Waiero li-bo voko i-wapio.The waves have piled up the stones together.
Ni-bo ajekele mina mevele 'none.I have collected rubbish from my front yard.
Ni-bo beniawo ni-le ni-laioi.I collected the ashes and threw them away.
see~wapioheap up
~bo2 (i·)ᵐbo verb, transitive
Lvn~me
Tnm~ibo
carve ‹wood›, to give it a specific shape or sharpen it
Li-bo kuo.make [carve] a canoe
Li-bo digo.cut out house beams
Li-toe bokoe li-bo.They're trimming a tree fern and shaping it (into a statue).
Tepapa, li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.To make a stomping board, you cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of a semi-circle.
see~toecut, chop
boe ᵐboe bwoe noun
(?) POc*bakewa
Fish
gensharkCarcharhiniformes spp.
bwoe baro noun
boe ‘shark’ + baro ‘coconut petiole’
Fish
coconut-petiole sharkhammerhead sharkSphyrnidae spp.
Bwoe baro nga na i-wene ne pwa motono.Hammerhead sharks like this live in the deep ocean.
bwoe tebene noun
boe ‘shark’ + tebene ‘pale’
Fish
pale sharkBlacktip reef sharkCarcharhinus melanopterus.
bwoe temiao noun
Fish
Whitetip reef SharkTriaenodon obesus.
bwoe telaifi noun
Fish
Silvertip sharkCarcharhinus albimarginatus.
bogo ᵐboᵑgo noun
POc*ᵐboŋi
night
main entrybwogo
boke ᵐboke noun
Tnmbage
POc*ᵐbaᵑga(ŋ)
Flora
banyan treeFicus spp.
kara bokebanyan roots
Besungale i-te ne ka togobe, ne utele boke, ne bonge.mythologyBesungale lives in the mangrove, or inside banyans, or in caves.
bokoe ᵐbokoe noun
Flora
tree fernCyathea spp.
Li-toe bokoe li-bo.They're trimming a tree fern and shaping it (into a statue).
~bono (i·)ᵐbono
Tnm~eo
Averb, intransitive
be shut
Mataruene i-bono.The door is shut.
see~su ② ⓐshut, close
antonym~ko ③ ⓐopen
Bverb, transitive
shut ‹door+›
Ka li-ko ruene, ka li-tabo li-bono.They open the door, and then shut it back.
antonym~ko ③ ⓑopen
bonge ᵐboŋe noun
Tnmbonge
A cave in the cliff.
cave, in a rock or cliff, typically on the coast
Uña asodo dapa li-avo ne bonge.Bats hang in caves.
Li-pinoe li-dai ra ra awoiu, li-tabo li-le ne bonge ma dapa.dancing SpiritsThey dance on and on, until they return to their cave home.
poss. classifierma ② ⓑ
boro1 ᵐboro adjective
black
main entrybworo
boro2 ᵐboro noun
POc*ᵐbʷoseScarus sp.
Fish
1parrotfishScaridae spp.
Fish
2espQuoy's ParrotfishScarus blochi.
Fish
3Bridled ParrotfishScarus frenatus.
boroboro ᵐboroᵐboro adjective
black, dark
📘 Reduplication of boro ①.
main entrybworobworo
boso ᵐboso preposition
Lvnbese
above
Telau i-avo boso iawo.The food basket is hanging above the fire.
Ka ai’ akapa i-tabe ma ini boso eo.blessingOur Father has waved his hands above you.
~botongo (i·)ᵐbotoŋo
Lvn~belonga
Tnm~baonga
Averb, transitive
s.o.interpose (s.th., oneself) between A and B, so as to prevent A (typically an agentive participant in motion) from reaching B (typically a static target)
Synt.The grammatical object is sometimes A (yielding meanings such as ‘stop, prevent’), sometimes B (yielding meanings such as ‘protect, take care’).
1block, shut ‹s.th.›
U-botongo ero etapu, u-sali!Stop blocking the water (with your hands), let it go!
Jokoro pon, tevie i-ko, tevie li-botongo.On bamboo drums, one side is open, the other side is shut.
2stop, prevent ‹s.o.› from doing s.th. (me or nara +Irr.); forbid
Li-botongo ene me ne-le.They're preventing me from going there.
U-botongo ini nara kape i-koie ne moe.Make sure he doesn't come inside the house.
synonym~garei
seeetapu
3object non-sgseparate ‹people› from each other
Ka ni-aiu ni-vio ni-botongo da.two men fightingSo I rose and separated them.
4impede access to ‹s.th.›
Vilisao i-botongo se mataiko ponu.The tornado was blocking the passage.
5serialised after posture Vbe in a position that blocks access to ‹s.th.›, whether deliberately or not, to impede access to ‹s.o., s.th.›; hence (sit+) on ‹s.th.›; (sit+) besides or with ‹s.o., s.th.› as a way to protect
Bara ba-te ba-botongo okoro ponu.I'm afraid you may be sitting on my knife.
Van' ni-wene ni-botongo nara kape le-punuo ñi.[I lie I block it] I sleep on (my money) so nobody can steal it.
I-te i-botongo menu.She’s sitting with the baby (to look after him).
6protect ‹s.o., s.th.› from a potential danger
Mwoe iape, waiero peini vono i-somoli tae pe i-botongo ñe tepapa.His house was not destroyed by the tidal wave, because he had protected it with planks.
Noma, idi wopine li-akawo kolokolo me i-botongo dapa.warfare implementIn ancient times, great men used to wear ‘kolokolo’ breast plates as a protection.
Dapa li-woi nuduro ne touro, me i-botongo temaka (ñe/mina idi).They put up taboo signs on the seashore, to protect the area (from poachers).
7hencetake care of, look after ‹s.o., s.th.›
Dapa Paiu li-botongo dapa France.The villagers of Paiou were looking after the French.
Kupa pi-kamai monone ne pe-ko me u-botongo.We brought this chest for you to look after.
Ni-la piene ono me ne-botongo ne-mini kaipa.I’m recording your language so I can take care of it for you.
U-botongo men' one!Take care of my kid!
8serialised after action Vdo s.th. in favour of ‹s.o.›
Ni-vet' piene ni-botongo eo.I stood up for you. [lit. I spoke I protected you]
Bverb, reflexive
reflexive constructiontake care of ‹o.s.›, hence be careful
U-botongo eo u-ejau!Take good care of yourself!
seemata eobeware
Cpostverbbotongo
rareafter verb(do s.th.) so as to cover, close, protect+
Li-dai ñe vilo li-asai botongo.We wrap it around a stick and tie it with a stitch [lit. stitch cover].
botu ᵐbotu noun
Engboat
modern boat
Pe-ka p-atui botu 'none!Come and have a go at (lifting) my boat!
seekuocanoe
bou ᵐbou noun
The bou tree.
Flora
k.o. treePremna corymbosa (?).
~bu1 (i·)ᵐbu verb, intransitive
Lvn~me
Tnm~bu
die, pass away
Ka i-bu.He's dead.
Ai' one ka i-bu, ebieve tua ka i-da.My father died eight years ago.
Telepakau akapa mwaliko i-bu damiliko iape ka basa peini ini, kape le-teli ini.In our tradition, when someone dies, he must be buried by his children and by his clan.
see~abu ③hit, kill
~bu2 (i·)ᵐbu verb, transitive
1fold or roll ‹s.th. flexible: cloth, leaf+›
Ni-bu bete ene me ne-lui.I've rolled my mat to take it away.
U-bu namolo iono.Fold your clothes away.
synonym~lu ②
Naut
2espfurl ‹sail, bavede
Bavede iada ka la-bu.They furled the sails.
bu-3 ᵐbu- subject prefix
conative prefix, presenting action as tentative
📘 Combines especially with verbs in order sentences.
~bubu (i·)ᵐbuᵐbu verb, transitive
Lvn~bubu
plait, braid ‹hair›
Ini i-bubu viabasa.She braids her hair.
see~veiweave
buia ᵐbuja noun, relational
Lvnbua
Tnmbuie
Anatomy
1testicles
Li-la buia pwoi.castrate a pig
2crustaceanabdomen – appreciated for its taste
buia loubaidoabdomen of a coconut crab
buia luro ᵐbujaluro noun
buia ‘testicles’ + luro ‘coconut’
sprout ball formed inside a germinated coconutCocos nucifera.
see lexical list atluro
~buibu (i·)ᵐbujᵐbu verb, intransitive
haircurly
Viabasa ini i-buibu.She has curly hair.
see lexical list atviabasa
buioe ᵐbuioe noun
Lvnnamwe
Tnmboia
POc*ᵐbuaqAreca catechu
1Areca palm, a treeAreca catechu.
tapaia buioe wooden platform made of Areca planks
2espareca nut, as commonly chewed (~kanu) together with betel leaves (puluko) and lime (awo)
li-ali buioepick areca nuts (by climbing)
La-la buioe ada me puluko ada.They took their areca nuts, together with their betel leaves.
poss. classifierenaka
see infobox at~kanu
buka ᵐbuka noun
Engbook
1book
I-si buka iote ñe uña iepiene peini kulumoe iakapa.He wrote a book with several stories from our country.
Piene mijaka ene ponu, ene li-la i-ke ne uie buka ponu.This little story was taken out of [the pages of] this book.
poss. classifierenaka▻⑦
2notebook
Buka ono po tivi?Your notebook, how much (did it cost)?
bula ᵐbula linker
linker used between buro ‘song’ and the topic of that song
buro bula Teuluthe song of the South wind
main entryburo bula
bulateno ᵐbulateno noun
ritual pole
main entryblateno
~bulengi (i·)ᵐbuleŋi verb, transitive
try to hear; listen, pay attention to
Mou me le-le le-bulengi.Let's try first to hear (what it is about).
buluko ᵐbuluko noun
POc*ᵐbulut
1treegum
buluko peini vongorogum of Canarium tree
buluko peini derogum of kaori tree
synonympulukogum, resin
2candle or torch, traditionally made with kaori gum
Li-su buluko.They lit their torches.
Li-ovei pe li-la tepulu li-lateli ne teipu me le-su nga buluko.Kauri resin can be stored in an empty coconut shell, and lit as a lamp.
3genlamp, light
vangana bulukothe glow of the lamp
Buluko ie ngele ponu?Whose flashlight is that?
buluko ie tadoe noun
buluko ‘lamp’ + ie ① ‘of’ + tadoe ‘spirit, god’
Geo
the torch of Godsvolcano
bulusa namuko ᵐbulusa namuko noun
Cf. namuko ‘fish’
Fish
? of fishremora, suckerfish, pilotfishEcheneidae spp.
buluwowo ᵐbuluwowo noun
Flora
k.o. tree (Euphorbiaceae)Macaranga tanarius.
bumavira ᵐbumavira noun
Fish
Whitecheeked SurgeonfishAcanthurus nigricans.
bune ᵐbune noun
POc*ᵐbunefruit dove
Birds
Green-winged Ground DoveChalcophaps indica.
seetelupepigeon
bunero ᵐbunero noun
POc*ᵐbunaR
batfishPlatax sp.
buro1 ᵐburo noun
Tnmbura
See*bakuRaCalophyllum sp.
Flora
Tamanu treeCalophyllum inophyllum.
Lekele i-nge wa buro.Flying-foxes chew tamanu fruits.
buro2 ᵐburo noun
Lvnbure
Tnmbura
Music
song
utele burobeginning of a song
Buro i-viane dapa ka li-le.As they walked, they were suddenly moved by a (beautiful) song.
see~oburosing
buro bula noun, relational
song of?song about ‹s.th., s.o.›; song designed for ‹s.th.›
buro bula Teuluthe song of the South wind
buro bula tamatesong for the Spirit Masks
buro bula okoro noun
Music
song of bamboossong genre, meant to accompany on the sound of pounded bamboos
see~woi okoropounding bamboos
busumoe ᵐbusumoe noun
Architecture
ridge flashing: section of roof thatch placed on the ridgepole
seepumeneridgepole
see lexical list atnengele moeelements of a house
bute ᵐbute noun
Lvnbule
Tnmbue
sekele butetaro garden
Li-au bute.harvest taro (by pulling on it)
📘 More commonly referred to as jebute – a former compound of jie bute.
bwara ᵐbʷara bara particle
Lvnbweti
Tnmburu
1particle introducing conjecture and doubt: perhaps, probably ; I believe, I guess
Ini bwara biouro i-da eo.She’s probably taller than you.
Ne english bwara li-vete nga ne.I guess it's called that way in English.
Ka li-mui dapa kula na bwara ka li-bu ne revo, dapa kula bwara li-wowo li-koie ne kulumoe.Lapérouse’s wreckNobody really knows, but I guess some (sailors) must have died in the sea, while some others must have swum.
derivative~ko bwarabelieve, hope
2espwith numbersabout, roughly
Li-apilo toñaki awoiu, bara i-vagas’ metele tuo nga ponu.The building of the ship must have taken about six months.
La-te ra ra, bwara kata kape ebieve iune bwara metele tuo.They stayed there, perhaps almost a whole year, or at least six months.
~bwatui ᵐbʷatui verb, intransitive
Lvn~bwatauki
Tnm~atuki
serial patterntry
Keba ba-bwatui ba-ko ba-mata ini, ia metae.We tried to rock him (asleep), but no way!
Pe-bwatui pi-oburo buro iote!Try and sing a song, y'all!
synonym~atui
bwoe ᵐbʷoe noun
shark
main entryboe
bwogo ᵐbʷoᵑgo
Lvnnedume
Tnmbwoñi
POc*ᵐboŋi
Anoun
1night: period of darkness in the day cycle
Matiki ⓑwogo the Evening Star
Ne tomoro nga na tae: bwogo!It was not during the day like this: it was night!
synonymnedemo
antonymmoroday, daylight
2day, when counting them
Ngapiene ka i-sali pon ta – bwogo tili.So the festival started, [and lasted] five days.
ne bwogo ne bogo adverb
at nightduring the night; tonight
Dapa tadoe li-ejau idi li-madau, tamwase ne bwogo.genericGhosts scare people, particularly at night.
Kia kape la-le la-labu louboaido ne bwogo?specificShall we go catch some shrimps tonight?
seenobwogolast night
bwogo wako bogo wako interjection
good nightgreeting uttered when leaving s.o. for the night, or for a longer period: hence good night, farewell
Bpredicative
with TAM markersbecome night, be night
Ka bwogo.It’s already night.
Li-mako i-le i-le i-le – me kape bwogo.They danced on and on – until night was ready to fall.
ra ra bwogo phrase
until it was nightall day long
Pepane kupa pi-moloe nga pon ra ra bogo!Yesterday we played like that all day long!
Cpostverb
rarein the darkness
Li-koie bwogo ne vonila.They were walking in the dark, in the evening.
bworo ᵐbʷoro boro adjective
Lvnbware
Tnmbetika
1black
ovene boroblack heron
Vilisao tilu: iote bworo, iote koro.Suddenly there were two tornados: one was dark, one was white.
synonymbworobworo
2personblack, esp. Melanesian
idi bworoMelanesians
Viabasa idi bworo, bworobworo ñoko tae, i-ovei pe moloe.Melanesian people’s hair is not always black, it can also be blond.
antonymdamalaWesterner
Flora
3fruitunripe, green
Boro, we i-ako?Is it green, or ripe?
antonym~ako
bworobworo ᵐbʷoroᵐbʷoro boroboro adjective
Lvnbalebware
Tnmbetikabetika
black, dark
adawo boroborodark, rainy cloud
Momoso iono ini bworobworo, we koro?Is your boy of dark or fair complexion?
synonymbworo
antonymkoro