nga ŋa
Apreposition
Lvnnge, nenge
Tnmnabo
1+ NPas, like
abwa nga toloto [colour like the lagoon] turquoise colour
Noma ini nga et’ iape!His face is just like his mum's!
Nga tadoe i-ovei pe i-tomwoe.Just like spirits, they knew how to become invisible.
Li-toe kara nebe li-bo nga kulaña metele.You cut a root of rosewood tree, and carve it in the shape of [lit. like] a semi-circle.
Basavono na ka tae, ka li-vesu bavede ñe kuo nga noma tae.Nowadays it's over: people don't sail any more like they used to [lit. like before].
derivativenga ponlike that
nga na adverb
like nowlike now, like this, like today
Ne tomoro nga na tae: bwogo!It was not during the day like this: it was night!
nga ne adverb
like thislike this: presentative accompanying gesture or reported speech
Biouro iape nga ne –It was long like this –
Tetawene kape le-si nga ne –The tattoo designs, they would draw them like this –
Dapa Teanu, buro peini li-oburo nga ne –The Teanu people sing like this –
Discourse
2in fiction narrativesdiscourse technique allowing to compare elements of fiction (age of characters, physical distances) with actual elements of the discourse situation
La-le, mamote somu tae, bwara nga ne to ñe na ka Tekupie.distanceThey didn't go very far – perhaps like (the distance) between here and Tikopia.
Bsubordinator
Lvnki-pu
Tnmka-po
1+ Realis clauseas, like
Ewe, nga awa eo i-viane.Alright, if you want.
2habitual, + Realis or Irrealiswhen, whenever; every time
Nga aña ene tae, ni-le ni-wene, awoiu ni-lengi wako.Whenever I feel tired, I take a nap, then I feel better.
Nga mwaliko i-bu, le-iu ebele ini i-wene ne kie ini.When somebody dies, their body is buried in a grave.
Nga ne tomoro nga le-romo ngiro wako, le-vesu i-katau.If they found the wind to be fine, they would sail along.
3conditional, + Irrealisif, in case
Nga u-romo leka, kape u-kila.Should you have any eye contact with your cross-cousin, you will have to marry her.
Da viñevi kula nga awa dapa li-ko li-anu kava, mijaka, me le-lengi.Some women, if they want to drink kava, [they can] do so, a little, to get a taste of it.
Nga i-abu mata, kape bwara mata ini kilo ñei.counterfactualIf he had hit her eyes, she could have turned blind.
C
Discourse
exclamative sentence, Irrealis verbexpresses regret or blame: if only…, you should have…
Nga ni-anu!I wish I could drink it!
Ia ni-mui, nga u-ium’ u-viñ' ene!I didn't know, you should have first told me!
Nga u-ka wik iune!If only you had come a whole week!
Ngabe ŋaᵐbe placename
Ngambe, location on the southwest coast of Banie island
Li-makui Ngabe pon, temaka po toñaki tamwaliko.underwater archaeologyThey've been diving around Ngambe, at the site of the wreckage.
~ngago (i·)ŋaᵑgo verb, transitive
1tie, bind ‹rope, string+›
Li-ngago woworo awoiu ka li-kila li-ko nuduro.We tie together rattan stems, and call it a nuduro (scareline).
Kape le-ngago moboro se tiaume peini kuo.We fasten a rope to the hooks of the canoe.
2esptie ‹belt, clothing› around o.'s body
Ni-la bele vilo, ni-ngago ñe waluko ene.I took a bark cloth and wrapped it around my thighs.
3string ‹a bow› for shooting; hence bend ‹bow›
Pon i-la visone iape i-ka i-ngago. I-ngago wako, i-la puro kula i-vio ne waluko.He took his bow, and strung it. Once he'd bent it, he tied a few arrows around his hip.
seetenurorope
nga li-ko ŋaliko ngaliko
Discourse
commlike (we/they) sayformula used when looking for words: ‘such as’, ‘like’; ‘how should I say’, ‘you know’
Webwe iape ngaliko i-vene i-wene ne ma ini.His armands, they were, like, they went all the way up his arm.
Dapa ka li-romo i-katau kape li-ejau ngapwae. Ngaliko: kiñe tamate, lusa ini, temaka ene pe moloe, ene po koro, ene po nga-toloto, ene ka ene nga-toloto –But the people had had the time to figure out how exactly they were going to proceed. Like – they could observe the grass skirts, the dancing gear; which part was red, which part was white, which part was blue, here and here…
nga ebele li-ko
nga + ebele ⓐ▻⑥ ‘body; example’ + ~ko ② ⓐ
Discourse
like (we/they) sayformula used when looking for words: ‘such as’, ‘like’; ‘how should I say’, ‘you know’
In’ na, nga ebele l’ko Teliki Makumoso, ai’ akapa, i-waivo idi ñe telepakau, ñe piene, i-waivo idi ñe ngatene pe li-ajau : nga ebele ko i-waivo idi pe li-vo mwoe, i-waivo idi pe li-bo vilo, kuo ngatene nga pon, wele, ngaten’ abia pon na…And that's him – how shall I say – that's Elderly Lord, our father, he's the one who taught us our culture, our language, everything we do: for example, he taught us how to build houses, how to create things with wood, how to cut canoes, how to make paddles, all those things…
Ngama ŋama placename
LvnNgama
Geo
Ngama, location on the southwest coast of Banie
N' adie Laperus dapa li-ka Ngama susuko.Then Lapérouse and his men arrived precisely where Ngama is.
ngamuli ŋamuli noun
ocean, open sea
U-da viro awoiu, u-le ne motono ngamuli.As you go across the reef, you reach the open ocean.
Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
synonymmotono
seerevo
nganae ŋanae ngaten’ ae
Lvnese
Tnmsive
Ainterrogative
Contraction ngatene ‘thing’ + ae ‘what’
what
Wako. Nganae a-ko u-vete?Alright. What do you want to say?
Ai-etengi ñe nganae?Why are you crying? [about what?]
Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.indirect speechI don't know what to do.
Na nganae?!predicateWhat's this?
synonymae
seengelewho?
B
anything
nganae… tae construction
anything… notnothing
Nganae kape li-lengi melia dapa ñe tae.ParadiseNothing can cause them any pain.
Cnoun
thing
Li-bi wa vilo nga pon, nganae nga bale, vewo, iliro, teno… li-kamai.They went to pick various fruits, [things] like breadfruit, chestnuts, lychees…, and they brought them.
ngapiene ŋapiˈene noun
Anthropology
dance festival
li-vete ngapieneannounce the festival
Ngapiene ka i-sali pon ta — bwogo tili.Then the festival comes to an end, after five days.
Kape le-tetele ngapiene pon.It was soon time to begin the festival.
📘 These dance festivals occur seldom nowadays; but they are central to many traditional stories.
Dance festivalsLi-mini ngapiene
Among major community events on Vanikoro, the main one was a dance festival called ngapiene. While such events occur seldom nowadays, they are central to many traditional stories. The festival revolved around a sort of greasy pole (blateno), erected in the middle of the village area (mane), loaded with fruit and food. Stomping boards (tepapa*) were laid out in a circle all around that pole, half-buried in the ground; for days on end, villagers would stomp those boards (~wate tepapa) and dance (~mako, ~pinoe) in a joyful and rowdy atmosphere. Such dancing festivals could last for several weeks on end, bringing the whole community together.
~mini ngapiene verb-object idiom
peoplegive festivalhold a festival
Ka li-la ngatene peini me kape le-mini ngapiene.They began the work so they could hold the festival.
ebele ngapiene noun
body of festivalend of the festival
Ini i-ko kape i-viane ebele ngapiene, i-ko nga nanana, mobo ngapiene awoiu.He said they would hit the end of the festival, that it would end the next day.
nga pon ŋaβon nga ponu ngapon
Lvnnenge pae
Aadverb
nga + ponu
1pointing to the addressee's actions or speechlike thatlike that, in that way
Nga ponu na susuko.It's perfect like that (like you're doing).
Pi’ on’ ka i-vete nga pon tae.My grandfather never said anything like that.
contrasts withnga nelike this
Discourse
2something like that: approximately
Li-apilo toñaki awoiu, bara i-vagas’ metele tuo nga ponu.The building of the ship must have taken about six months, something like that.
Discourse
3commedging strategy in speech‘and so on’, ‘that sort of thing’. Generally not translated
Li-toe iuro, ae, digo, we uña ngatene nga pon.They cut out pillars, beams, and other pieces like that.
Li-ovei pe li-tomoe, li-ovei pe li-tabo li-ka, nga ponu.They know how to disappear, how to appear again, that sort of thing.
4commjust, only: restrictive
Ni-ovei mijaka nga ponu.I only know a little.
Ponu kava pon, piene peini kuledi nga pon.And so, the story of kava is just a short one like that.
Sande, moro pine, pe li-langatene tae, pe li-tamava, pe li-te ne moe nga pon.Sunday is an important day – one when we don't work, when we pray, when we just stay at home.
Telepakau pe noma, basavono po li-ve dameliko, nga emele kape li-abu dapa. Kape le-loko ne i-te iune ngapon, li-abu dapa.According to an ancient practice, when female children were born, they would be killed. People would keep only one daughter; others would be killed.
Bpredicative
1anaphoric referenceit's like thatit goes on like that, in the same manner; hence continuously, repeatedly
Ka ne basakulumoe pine nga ponu.And in the bigger island, it was the same.
Moro abia pon, nga pon.The same would happen every day.
2pointing to the addressee's actions or speechthat's it
Ewe, kape nga ponu.predicative, future markedYes, that must be it. [lit. it will (be) like that]
ngapungo ŋapuŋo noun
Sea
k.o. dark-coloured shore crabGrapsus albolineatus.
ngapwae ŋapʷae adverb
Lvnnenge ese, nengese
Tnmnabo sive, wosive
Cf. nga ⓐ▻① ‘like’
how?
Pine ngapwae?How big is it?
Buioe amela, kela bai-odo ngapwae?Your areca nuts (for you to chew), how will you find them?
Dapa ka li-romo i-katau kape li-ejau ngapwae.The people had had the time to figure out how exactly they were going to proceed.
synonym~kae
ngasune ŋasune engasune
Lvnnenge-tilu
Tnmninge-omwano
Aadjective
same, identical (as, nga ⓐ▻① or samame)
Ene ngasune nga eo.I am just like you.
Ka vitoko ngasune nga piene akapa.It's nearly the same as our language.
“Menu aplaka 'none”, we “men’ one aplaka”, da-tilu ngasune susuko.“Menu aplaka 'none”, or “men’ one aplaka” [my little baby], both (word orders) are equally correct.
Ni-toe jokoro iote me susuko me ngasune semame jokoro iote.I cut a bamboo rod to the same length as the other one.
antonymengaiotedifferent
Bpostverb
equally, alike
Iaero tilu ponu da la-kopine engasune.These two rivers are equally deep.
Dapa li-romo i-aiae ngasune nga ene.They find it difficult, as much as I do.
ngaten’ ae ŋatenae interrogative
ngatene ‘thing’ + ae ‘what’
what thingwhat?
Li-le pe ngaten' ae?Why did they go? [lit. they went due to what thing?]
main entrynganae
ngatene ŋatene noun
Lvnvesemele
Tnmvamora
thing
1concrthing, object
Uña ngaten' na, kape i-vio tev' eo.All those things will be yours.
Li-makui li-odo ngatene peini toñaki ie Laperus.They search underwater for objects from the wreck of Lapérouse.
2esps.o.'s belongings; luggage
Uña ngaten' enaka i-wene tev' iu re.My stuff (bags+) is up over there.
seenamolo
poss. classifierenaka
3piece of food
Le-le le-labu ngatene?Shall we go grab something? (=food)
Li-e ngatene pe mie, li-ko “te masi”.The food they eat is smelly, they call it “te masi”.
4rareanimal; non-human creature
Ngatene ponu, li-romo nga mwaliko, ia mwaliko tae.SpiritsThose creatures look like they're human, but they are not.
Ka kaipa mwaliko na, ia kupa na ngatene nga na.You people are human; but we are just non-human creatures [lit. just things] like this.
5abstrthing; topic, issue, idea, meaning
Ngatene pon etapu tamwase pe li-vet’ piene ñi.This topic is very delicate to talk about.
Vesepiene iune, i-vete ngatene tilu.polysemyIt is the same word, but with two distinct meanings. [lit. it says two things]
seeawa
6effort, activity, work
Ni-ovei ni-ko ngatene abia teve eo.I know you have a lot of work. [lit. many things are with you]
Awis pine peini ngatene pe a-la ponu.Thank you for your efforts. [lit. for the things you ‘took’]
derivative~la ngatenework
ngava ŋava noun
Anatomy
scales
U-do ngava, awoiu u-ia bea mina.You scrape off the scales, and then gut it.
~nge (i·)ŋe verb, transitive
chew ‹sugarcane+› so as to suck out its juice while avoiding to eat the fibres
Dameliko li-nge to.The kids are chewing some sugarcane.
Lekele i-nge wa vede.Flying-foxes chew fruits of pandanus.
ngele ŋele interrogative
Lvnenge
Tnmngela
1in questionswho
Ngele? Sintia pe Niteni?Who? Sintia from Santa Cruz?
Ngele i-wablei kupa?Who is teasing us?
Buluko ie ngele ponu?Whose flashlight is that?
Enga eo ngele?What [lit. who] is your name?
contrasts withnganaewhat
2freqwhen hesitating on s.o.'s nameer –
Ka dapa ka li-odo ngele, Laperusi.So they went to search for, er, Lapérouse.
3indefinitesomeone; anyone
N-i, ia ni-lengi ngele i-laiaini tae.I called out, but I didn't heard anybody reply.
derivativengele ngawhoever
ngele ngele
who whowhoever
Ngele ngele i-te i-katau ñe kulumoe iakapa na, kape i-lengi aña ruene.Whoever lives on our island can hear that noise.
ngele nga ŋeleŋa
1in protasiswho ifwhoever; anyone who
Ngele nga i-ko i-oburo buro ae pon, kape i-obur’ i-le.Whoever wants to sing a song, they can go ahead and sing.
Kape nga ngele nga i-bu, kape le-lengi aña ruene pe li-ko.Every time someone dies, we hear the noise of that door.
2in main clauseanyone, whoever
Ngele nga, i-le i-toe kuo iape ne ngogoro.Anyone can go cut his canoe in the bush.
ngilo ŋilo noun
Tnmmatika
Fish
river eelAnguilliformes.
contrasts withmevikosea eel
ngiro ŋiro noun
Tnmngida
The winds (ngiro) of Vanikoro
POc*aŋin
Wind namesEnga ngiro
Palapu N wind
Tokoloutu NNE wind
Nomianu NE wind
Tangake Nomianu E wind
Tangake ESE wind
Tonga SE wind
Teulu SSE wind
Laki SSW wind
Vakasiu SW wind
Tokolau W wind
Tokolau Palapu NW wind
wind
Ka iolulu! tebo! ngiro!There was thunder! rain! wind!
Ngiro i-aka.The wind is blowing.
Ngiro ka i-lubi.The wind has turned.
Vilisao ini ngiro korone.A tornado is a powerful wind.
ngogoro ŋoᵑgoro
Lvnatere
Tnmarara
Anoun
bush, forest (opp. kulumoe, village)
Ngogoro ka i-maili.The bush has grown there.
Li-le li-toe longe ne ngogoro ka li-tabe li-kamai li-wapio i-vio ne moe.They went to chop firewood in the bush, then brought it back and piled it up in the house.
Poi pe li-womanga ne kulumoe, vao i-moloe ne ngogoro.Domesticated pigs are fed in the village, but wild pigs wander about in the forest.
Bpredicative
placebe overgrown by nature
Ka ngogoro tamwase.with perfect ka ②This place is totally overgrown.
~ngongo (i·)ŋoŋo verb, intransitive
POc*ŋoRasnore, grunt, breathe
snore
Ini i-ngongo tamwase.He's snoring a lot.